In The Beginning Bible Study

          Table of Contents

Lesson 1        The Beginning                                  Pages 2-19

Lesson 2       Water                                                  Pages 19-32

Lesson 3        Life                                                      Pages 32-50

Lesson 4        Where is the Garden of Eden?       Pages 50-65

Lesson 5        Second Adam                                          Pages 65-82

Lesson 6        Sacrifice That Covers Us                  Pages 82-92

Lesson 7       Giants in the Land                             Pages 93-108

Lesson 8        Prehistoric Age                                 Pages 108-128

Lesson 9         Noahide Laws                                   Pages 128-141

Lesson 10       Globalism/Humanism                 Pages  141-153

We want to take a closer look at the creation story. God’s Word is complete and total. This means that we should be able to discover all truth through His Word. So let’s begin “in the beginning.” 

To begin, we read that God created. But we have to ask ourselves, who is God? The person who opens a Bible for the first time may not know anything about God. I suppose the Bible could not describe God in one book, because you can not explain God in a few words. He is so vast that even volumes of books could not tell you everything about Him. He is above our limited language because He has no bounds, no limitations. We can say that God is awesome, great, and mighty, but this just does not say enough about God. So, like the writer of Ecclesiastes 7:24, we ask this question: “That which is far off, and exceeding deep, who can find it out?

Well, you know what they say: “A picture is worth a thousand words.” God is quite the Artist, and He has painted a beautiful picture of Himself for us in the Word of God. What we see there is that God is love: “For He so loved” that He created a place for us, a world with all of its beauty. And that is where we are going to start.

Ecclesiastes 3:11 tells us, “God has made everything beautiful for its own time. He has planted eternity in the human heart, but even so, people cannot see the whole scope of God’s work from beginning to end.”

As we look at God, the Master Builder and the Great Artist, we will see through His masterpiece—His creation—who He is.

We know that God is a Spirit as Yeshua tells us in John 4:24, “God is spirit, and His worshipers must worship in the Spirit and in truth.”

So we say this: We know that everything has a beginning except for God, as Psalm 90:1-2 tells us, “Lord, You have been our dwelling place in all generations. Before the mountains were born or You gave birth to the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, You are God.”

If God is a Spirit, then He lives in a spiritual world, a world we will not understand till we cross the great divide in death. 

If God is a Spirit, then what do we make of Ezekiel 8:2? “Then I looked, and behold, a likeness as the appearance of a man; from His loins and downward there was the appearance of fire, and from His loins and upward the appearance of brightness, like the appearance of glowing metal.”

Or Isaiah 6:1-4

It was in the year King Uzziah died that I saw the Lord. He was sitting on a lofty throne, and the train of his robe filled the Temple. Attending him were mighty seraphim, each having six wings. With two wings they covered their faces, with two they covered their feet, and with two they flew. They were calling out to each other, “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of Heaven’s armies! The whole earth is filled with His glory!” Their voices shook the Temple to its foundations, and the entire building was filled with smoke.

And how about Revelation 1:10-16? 

On the Lord’s Day I was in the Spirit, and I heard behind me a loud voice like a trumpet, which said: “Write on a scroll what you see and send it to the seven churches: to Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia and Laodicea.” I turned around to see the voice that was speaking to me. And when I turned I saw seven golden lampstands, and among the lampstands was someone like a son of man, dressed in a robe reaching down to his feet and with a golden sash around his chest. The hair on his head was white like wool, as white as snow, and his eyes were like blazing fire. His feet were like bronze glowing in a furnace, and his voice was like the sound of rushing waters. In his right hand he held seven stars, and coming out of his mouth was a sharp, double-edged sword. His face was like the sun shining in all its brilliance.

We see so many other scriptures that refer to God being in the likeness of man, or refer to the throne room of God as if it were a place here on Earth. We must understand that it is all about perception. What the writer saw may not be the way it is, but only the way he perceived it to be, as Exodus 33:20 tells us, “But He said, ‘You cannot see My face, for no man can see Me and live!’”

So what about the throne room of God? We know that it exists, because Acts 7:44 tells us, “Our fathers had the tabernacle of the testimony with them in the wilderness. It was constructed exactly as God had directed Moses, according to the pattern he had seen.”

And Hebrews 8:5 also tells us, “They serve a copy and shadow of what is in heaven. This is why Moses was warned when he was about to build the tabernacle, ‘See to it that you make everything according to the pattern shown you on the mountain.’”

Both of these verses quote from Exodus 25:40, “See that you make them [the implements of the tabernacle] after the pattern for them, which was shown to you on the mountain;” yet the creation story does not tell us when the throne room of God came to be. So it must have existed before He made the heavens and the Earth. 

Let’s look at the beginning so that we can understand the end.

The Throne Room

We know that God is a Spirit, so He had no beginning and He has no end. He has no need of time, space, or even air. Before God created, nothing existed, not even His angels. So why would God need a throne room when there was no one to attend to it or to attend to Him? Also, a throne room is for a king. If nothing existed before creation, who would God have been king over? So we can make the assumption, I think, that God created His sanctuary, His throne room, at the same time He created His angels but before He created the heavens and the Earth.

Revelation 4 describes an awesome scene from the throne room of God. It gives us such a clear picture of who God is and the continual worship of God in the heavens:

After this I looked, and there before me was a door standing open in heaven. And the voice I had first heard speaking to me like a trumpet said, “Come up here, and I will show you what must take place after this.” At once I was in the Spirit, and there before me was a throne in heaven with someone sitting on it. And the one who sat there had the appearance of jasper and ruby. A rainbow that shone like an emerald encircled the throne. Surrounding the throne were twenty-four other thrones, and seated on them were twenty-four elders. They were dressed in white and had crowns of gold on their heads. From the throne came flashes of lightning, rumblings and peals of thunder. In front of the throne, seven lamps were blazing. These are the seven spirits of God. Also in front of the throne there was what looked like a sea of glass, clear as crystal. In the center, around the throne, were four living creatures, and they were covered with eyes, in front and in back. The first living creature was like a lion, the second was like an ox, the third had a face like a man, the fourth was like a flying eagle. Each of the four living creatures had six wings and was covered with eyes all around, even under its wings. Day and night they never stop saying: “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord God Almighty, who was, and is, and is to come.” Whenever the living creatures give glory, honor and thanks to Him who sits on the throne and who lives for ever and ever, the twenty-four elders fall down before Him who sits on the throne and worship Him who lives for ever and ever. They lay their crowns before the throne and say: “You are worthy, our Lord and God, to receive glory and honor and power, for You created all things, and by Your will they were created and have their being.”

With the stroke of the brush, God continues to paint a picture of Himself. We do know that God rules and reigns above all of His creation. He is the Most High God and there is nothing higher than Him.

Genesis 14:18-22 tells us this about God Most High: 

Then Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine. He was priest of God Most High (El Elyon) and he blessed Abram, saying, “Blessed be Abram by God Most High, Creator of heaven and earth. And praise be to God Most High, who delivered your enemies into your hand.” Then Abram gave him a tenth of everything. The king of Sodom said to Abram, “Give me the people and keep the goods for yourself.” But Abram said to the king of Sodom, “With raised hand I have sworn an oath to the Lord, God Most High, Creator of heaven and earth…”

Psalm 57:2 also uses this title for God: “I cry out to God Most High, to God, who vindicates me.”

Psalm 78:35 says this: “They remembered that God was their Rock, that God Most High was their Redeemer.”

Psalm 113:4-6 tells us, “The Lord is exalted over all the nations, His glory above the heavens. Who is like the Lord our God, the One who sits enthroned on high, who stoops down to look on the heavens and the earth?”

Isaiah 57:15 tells us, “For thus says the high and exalted One Who lives forever, whose name is Holy, ‘I dwell on a high and holy place, and also with the contrite and lowly of spirit in order to revive the spirit of the lowly and to revive the heart of the contrite.’”

Even though God is the Most High God who is high and lifted up, He still draws near to those who are humble and lowly of spirit. 

Let us continue on as we look into the creation story.

There is so much that we do not understand about God. So much mystery surrounds Him. We have so many unanswered questions. What was it like before He created? Where and how did God exist? The Psalmist writes in Psalm 139:6, “Such knowledge is too wonderful for me; it is too high, I cannot attain it.”

Before God created, God had to plan. He is a Master Architect. He laid out His plans of just the right way to create the universe. What elements should He use? Just how far apart should He place each planet, each star? What about the types of trees? Should He have just fruit trees or shade trees, big or small trees? And colors: everything should have its own color. The seasons, the weather, and this animal and that creature… and of course, what about man? God planned it all out and designed it all to perfection. Hebrews 11:10 says this of Abraham: “For he was looking forward to the city with foundations, whose architect and builder is God.”

Before the Foundation of the World

The rabbis believed that God created seven things before he created the universe as explained in Genesis 1.  

God created seven things before He created the World. They are the Torah; repentance; the Garden of Eden; Gehenna; the Throne of Glory; the Temple; and the name of Messiah . . . The name of the Messiah, as it is written [in Psalm 72:17], “May His name endure forever; before the sun His name endures.” (b. Pesachim 54a)

Genesis 1:1 reads, “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” When we read “In the beginning,” what comes to our mind? Well, for one:

  1. The Word

John 1:1 says, “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.” We also know this about the beginning from Revelation 22:13, which says, “I am the Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last.” So we learned that before God created anything, His Word, the Torah, was from the beginning. We know that God was from the beginning and that His Torah was also. This means that when God entrusted His Torah to Israel on Mt. Sinai, it was not something new and only for a specific group of people, but as Romans 3:2 tells us, “Much in every way! First of all, the Jews have been entrusted with the very words of God.” Why? Because Israel was the only group of people who worshiped the One True God, the Creator of Heaven and Earth, at that time. We also see that before God even laid the foundation of the Earth that He loved His Word, as John 17:24 tells us, “Father, I desire that they also, whom You have given Me, be with Me where I am, so that they may see My glory which You have given Me, for You loved Me before the foundation of the world.”

Around the time when Yeshua and His disciples walked on this Earth, there were several different Aramaic translations of the Hebrew Scriptures that were popular. Some of these translations, called Targums, function more like commentaries or paraphrases than as literal translations. Some of the translators of these Targums pondered how it could be that an infinite, limitless, spiritual God interacted with a physical, finite world. Some of these early rabbis and translators believed that God somehow manifested Himself in a distinct way in order to interact with the physical universe. They called this unique manifestation of God the Memra, which is Aramaic for “Word.” In the Targum, God creates the World through the Memra. For example, in one of these Aramaic translations, Genesis 1:1 is translated like this: “From the beginning, with wisdom the Word of the Lord created.” In the same translation, Genesis 1:3 likewise says, “And the Word of the Lord said: ‘Let there be light’; and there was light by His Word.” This is the equivalent of what we read in John 1:1. It is not as if the Word, or the Memra, is a separate deity, but rather as John puts it, the Word is God. It is an “emanation,” or a facet of God.

  1. Wisdom

God’s Torah is God’s wisdom. Proverbs 3:19-20 says, “By wisdom the LORD laid the earth’s foundations, by understanding He set the heavens in place; by knowledge the watery depths were divided, and the clouds let drop the dew.”

Proverbs 8:22-31 tells us in Wisdom’s own words: 

I, wisdom, was with the Lord when He began His work, long before He made anything else. I was created in the very beginning, even before the world began. I was born before there were oceans, or springs overflowing with water, before the hills were there, before the mountains were put in place. God had not made the earth or fields, not even the first dust of the earth. I was there when God put the skies in place, when He stretched the horizon over the oceans, when He made the clouds above and put the deep underground springs in place. I was there when He ordered the sea not to go beyond the borders He had set. I was there when He laid the earth’s foundation. I was like a child by His side. I was delighted every day, enjoying His presence all the time, enjoying the whole world, and delighted with all its people.

WOW! That is some Scripture about the personal relationship between God and His Torah (His Word), and we know that the Torah became flesh and dwelt among us. We also know that if God’s Torah was the foundation to His creation, then His Torah should be our foundation.

Isaiah 40:28 says this: “Do you not know? Have you not heard? The Lord is an eternal God, the Creator of the whole earth. He does not get tired or weary; there is no limit to His wisdom.”

Psalm 111:10 speaks of wisdom like this: “The beginning of wisdom is the fear of the Lord.” The same Hebrew word is used as “In the beginning” (reisheet). Wisdom and God are inseparable, or we could say God and His Torah are inseparable, or we could say God and Yeshua are inseparable. All three are the same. God is so beyond and above His creation!

  1. Predestined

Ephesians 1:4-6 tells us that we were chosen before the foundation of the world.

Just as He chose us in Him before the foundation of the world, that we would be holy and blameless before Him. In love He predestined us for adoption to Himself as sons through Messiah Yeshua, according to the purpose of His will, to the praise of His glorious grace, with which He has blessed us in the Beloved.

Also in Romans 8:29-30

For those God foreknew He also predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brothers and sisters. And those He predestined, He also called; those He called, He also justified; those He justified, He also glorified.

Titus 1:2 tells us, “In hope of eternal life which God, who cannot lie, promised before time began.”

We also don’t know why people were predestined to be eternally saved or eternally damned other than we know that God knows the beginning from the end. As the Scripture tells us, He is the beginning and the end. He is all-powerful, all-knowing, and ever-present.

The rabbis believe that all of the souls that have ever lived and will ever live in the future were formed during the creation week: “You should know that all the souls that existed from the time of Adam the first man until the end of time, were all created during the six days of creation” (Midrash Tanchuma, Mishpatim 3). The souls are kept in heavenly storeplaces and are implanted into humans when they are ready to be conceived. If this is true, then God knew the character of our souls from the very beginning: He knew those who would choose Him and those who would reject Him. Some of the rabbis believe that Messiah can’t come until the last soul has been put into a body.

  1. Lamb of God

We also see before the foundation of the world that the Lamb of God was slain.

So why was Yeshua, the Word made flesh, appointed to be the Lamb of God before the foundation of the world? We will see as time goes on.

Revelation 13:8 says this: “And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.”

Hebrews 9:11-12 tells us: 

But when the Messiah came as high priest of the good things that are now already here, He went through the greater and more perfect tabernacle that is not made with human hands, that is to say, is not a part of this creation. He did not enter by means of the blood of goats and calves; but He entered the Most Holy Place once for all by His own blood, thus obtaining eternal redemption.

As it continues in Hebrews 9:23-26,

It was necessary, then, for the copies of the heavenly things to be purified with these sacrifices, but the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these. For Messiah did not enter a sanctuary made with human hands that was only a copy of the true one; He entered heaven itself, now to appear for us in God’s presence. Nor did He enter heaven to offer Himself again and again, the way the high priest enters the Most Holy Place every year with blood that is not his own. Otherwise Messiah would have had to suffer many times since the creation of the world. But He has appeared once for all at the culmination of the ages to do away with sin by the sacrifice of Himself.

So we may not understand how the Lamb was slain before the foundation of the world, other than that God sees the beginning and the end all at the same time. But we do know that the sanctuary of God needed to be purified just like the earthly temple needed to be purified before it was used, as we just saw in Hebrews 9 and also as we see in Ezekiel 43:18-20

Then he said to me: “Son of man, this is what the Sovereign Lord says: These are the statutes of the altar: On the day it is built to offer up burnt offerings on it and to sprinkle blood on it you will give a young bull for a sin offering to the Levitical priests who are descended from Zadok, who approach Me to minister to Me, declares the Sovereign Lord. You will take some of its blood and place it on the four horns of the altar, on the four corners of the ledge, and on the border all around; you will purify it and make atonement for it.”

  1. God’s Name

This brings us to God’s name (YHWH). Exodus 3:13-15 tells us about God’s eternal name.

Moses said to God, “Suppose I go to the Israelites and say to them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is His name?’ Then what shall I tell them?” God said to Moses, “I am who I am. This is what you are to say to the Israelites: ‘I Am has sent me to you.’” God also said to Moses, “Say to the Israelites, ‘The Lord, the God of your fathers—the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob—has sent me to you.’ This is My name forever, the name you shall call Me from generation to generation.” 

Over the years, many scholars have debated on the correct pronunciation of this name. Many have agreed that this name is more of a verb that expresses past, present, and future tenses all at once. He is the one who was and is and is to come as Revelation 1:8 tells us, “’I am the Alpha and the Omega,’ says the Lord God, ‘who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty.’”

In quantum physics we might call this a superposition of all possible states. Quantum physics says that the particles or waves that make up our universe, including us, can exist in all possible states at once. When a particular particle is singled out, it then becomes a part of that specific location or time. With God’s name it is similar, being in all states, dimensions, and times simultaneously, but when one lives today, we reduce His name to our present state. He becomes my God and my refuge in my present trouble as Psalm 46:1 tells us, “God is our refuge and strength, a very present help in trouble.”

Ecclesiastes 3:11 tells us, “Yet God has made everything beautiful for its own time. He has planted eternity in the human heart, but even so, people cannot see the whole scope of God’s work from beginning to end.” So we see that there is a lot to unpack in the first few words of Genesis 1 before God began to create the heavens and the earth.

Which brings us back to, who is God? We have learned a few things about God, but as we go on we will learn even more, because you know what they say, “A picture is worth a thousand words.” God is quite the Artist, and He has painted for us a beautiful picture of Himself in the Word of God; and what we see is that God is love, as the Psalmist writes in Psalm 36:5-9,

Your love, Lord, reaches to the heavens, Your faithfulness to the skies. Your righteousness is like the highest mountains, Your justice like the great deep. You, Lord, preserve both people and animals. How priceless is Your unfailing love, O God! People take refuge in the shadow of Your wings. They feast on the abundance of Your house; You give them drink from Your river of delights. For with You is the fountain of life; in Your light we see light.

For God so loved that He created a place for us, a world with all of its beauty, and that is where we are going to start. 

We also know from the Scriptures that the angels were created before the foundation of the world, as Job 38:4-7 tells us, 

Where were you when I laid the earth’s foundation? Tell me, if you understand. Who marked off its dimensions? Surely you know! Who stretched a measuring line across it? On what were its footings set, or who laid its cornerstone—while the morning stars sang together and all the angels shouted for joy?

So let’s stop here and take a closer look at the angels who were created before the foundation of the world.

  1. Angels

Well, we know that the angels are created beings. Only God is eternal, without a beginning or an end. Angels have several purposes. We know that they are agents of God. We know that there are ministering angels, as Hebrews 1:14 tells us, “Are not all angels ministering spirits sent to serve those who will inherit salvation?” We also know that there are angels who are sent to give messages, like Gabriel to Mary in Luke 1:26, “In the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a city of Galilee named Nazareth.” We know that there are Cherubim who stand guard at the entryway to the Garden of Eden to protect the Tree of Life, and quite possibly these same angels guard us as our guardian angels. But think about it: when a person dies, that guardian angel is now assigned to one who has just been conceived. We know that God keeps watch over us even before we are born, as Psalm 139:13-16 says, 

For You created my inmost being; You knit me together in my mother’s womb. I praise You because I am fearfully and wonderfully made; Your works are wonderful, I know that full well. My frame was not hidden from You when I was made in the secret place, when I was woven together in the depths of the earth. Your eyes saw my unformed body; all the days ordained for me were written in Your book before one of them came to be.

Psalm 91:11-12 tells us, “For He shall give His angels charge over thee, to keep thee in all thy ways. They shall bear thee up in their hands, lest thou dash thy foot against a stone.” God’s angels are with us from the beginning to end of life.

We know that angels have ranks, like the archangel Michael who came to help fight the prince of Persia. In Daniel 10:13, the angel Michael is called “one of the chief princes,” and in Jude 1:9 he is called, “the archangel Michael.” 

We see the Seraphim angels worshiping God continually in the throne room of God crying out, “Holy, Holy, Holy” in Isaiah 6.

Ezekiel 1:4-28 gives us a glimpse of the appearance of an angel like no other place in Scripture. It says this:

I looked, and I saw a windstorm coming out of the north—an immense cloud with flashing lightning and surrounded by brilliant light. The center of the fire looked like glowing metal, and in the fire was what looked like four living creatures. In appearance their form was human, but each of them had four faces and four wings. Their legs were straight; their feet were like those of a calf and gleamed like burnished bronze. Under their wings on their four sides they had human hands. All four of them had faces and wings, and the wings of one touched the wings of another. Each one went straight ahead; they did not turn as they moved. Their faces looked like this: Each of the four had the face of a human being, and on the right side each had the face of a lion, and on the left the face of an ox; each also had the face of an eagle. Such were their faces. They each had two wings spreading out upward, each wing touching that of the creature on either side; and each had two other wings covering its body. Each one went straight ahead. Wherever the spirit would go, they would go, without turning as they went. The appearance of the living creatures was like burning coals of fire or like torches. Fire moved back and forth among the creatures; it was bright, and lightning flashed out of it. The creatures sped back and forth like flashes of lightning. As I looked at the living creatures, I saw a wheel on the ground beside each creature with its four faces. This was the appearance and structure of the wheels: They sparkled like topaz, and all four looked alike. Each appeared to be made like a wheel intersecting a wheel. As they moved, they would go in any one of the four directions the creatures faced; the wheels did not change direction as the creatures went. Their rims were high and awesome, and all four rims were full of eyes all around. When the living creatures moved, the wheels beside them moved; and when the living creatures rose from the ground, the wheels also rose. Wherever the spirit would go, they would go, and the wheels would rise along with them, because the spirit of the living creatures was in the wheels. When the creatures moved, they also moved; when the creatures stood still, they also stood still; and when the creatures rose from the ground, the wheels rose along with them, because the spirit of the living creatures was in the wheels. Spread out above the heads of the living creatures was what looked something like a vault, sparkling like crystal, and awesome. Under the vault their wings were stretched out one toward the other, and each had two wings covering its body. When the creatures moved, I heard the sound of their wings, like the roar of rushing waters, like the voice of the Almighty, like the tumult of an army. When they stood still, they lowered their wings. Then there came a voice from above the vault over their heads as they stood with lowered wings. Above the vault over their heads was what looked like a throne of lapis lazuli, and high above on the throne was a figure like that of a man. I saw that from what appeared to be his waist up he looked like glowing metal, as if full of fire, and that from there down he looked like fire; and brilliant light surrounded him. Like the appearance of a rainbow in the clouds on a rainy day, so was the radiance around him. This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the Lord. When I saw it, I fell face down, and I heard the voice of one speaking.

So we see these incredible angelic beings and a God of power and fire, both very awesome.

Colossians 1:16 tells us, “For in Him all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; all things have been created through Him and for Him.” Paul gives us a peek into the spiritual realm by telling us that God created thrones and powers, rulers and authorities.

Ephesians 1:19-23 says this: 

That power is the same as the mighty strength He exerted when He raised Messiah from the dead and seated Him at His right hand in the heavenly realms, far above all rule and authority, power and dominion, and every name that is invoked, not only in the present age but also in the one to come. And God placed all things under His feet and appointed Him to be head over everything for the church, which is His body, the fullness of Him who fills everything in every way.

Also in Ephesian 3:10-11

His intent was that now, through the church, the manifold wisdom of God should be made known to the rulers and authorities in the heavenly realms, according to His eternal purpose that He accomplished in Messiah Yeshua our Lord.

And again referring to Messiah, 1 Peter 3:22 tells us that He “has gone into heaven and is at God’s right hand—with angels, authorities and powers in submission to Him.”

It is quite clear that the angels have rank and authority.

So let us continue with Genesis 1:1, “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.”

We see that God created not only the earth, but also the heavens. The heavens are not only the sky where the birds fly, but the heavens are where the planets orbit the sun and where all of the galaxies exist. The heavens also include where the angels dwell. So we see here three levels of heaven. We begin to see that God was creating space.

But verse 2 begins to speak about the Earth. Wait! We know that God created the heavens and the earth, which included the entire universe, and yet God does not tell us how He created the heavens and the Earth, or any planet for that matter. We do know that God spoke many things into existence, but it does not tell us that He spoke the heavens and the Earth into existence. Let’s look even closer.

The Universe

There was no space before God created it. God was it. He has no bounds, no limits—He is endless. So God had to create the space for His creation, and how did He do that? Well, if everything was God, then God had to remove a part of Himself to do that. 

Let’s look at Isaiah 6:1 for a clue. It says, “In the year that King Uzziah died I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up; and the train of His robe filled the temple.” God’s train represents His glory. Now, let’s say that the temple was all God, His presence, before the creation of space. We see that His train filled the whole temple. So to make space, God had to pull back His train, or Himself, as one would pull back his garment, to make room for us. This created the space we now call the universe. 

The universe is so big that scientists estimate that there are billions and maybe even trillions of galaxies. Even though only one million have been catalogued, even fewer have been named. Each galaxy has millions and even billions of stars held together by interstellar gases, dust and dark matter and its own gravitational pull. 

The study of galaxies and stars and how they are born and die is a fascinating study, but for us now we must ask ourselves, why did God create so much space? Wouldn’t one galaxy have been enough—like maybe just the one we live in? He could have, but the Scripture tells us in Psalm 19:1, “The heavens declare the glory of God, and the sky above proclaims his handiwork.” Every time we look up and see the creation of God, every time we look around us, we see the glory of God. Man is without excuse, as Romans 1:19-20 tells us, 

For what can be known about God is plain to them, because God has shown it to them. For His invisible attributes, namely, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly perceived, ever since the creation of the world, in the things that have been made. So they are without excuse.

Hugh Ross, an astronomer and pastor, has this to say about the beginning of the universe and how it points to God:

It’s [the] Theory of General Relativity that predicts there’s a beginning to the universe. Until Albert Einstein’s theory came along, astronomers and physicists thought the universe was infinitely old. The Theory of General Relativity now said, “No, it’s finite in time. It has a beginning,” which implies there must be a Beginner who was responsible for bringing the universe into existence. . . . There must be an agent beyond space and time that created our universe of matter, energy, space and time.

Ross says that because General Relativity has been proven to be true, it follows that the universe must have had a beginning, “Which means that likewise we have confidence that there must be a God beyond space and time who created our universe.”

In the study of the universe, you see that the universe and how it operates is really like one giant clock; and since the time that God put all things into motion, the galaxies have been growing and depleting as time has gone by. For as we will see, God also created time. Since God mentions the Earth first, maybe our galaxy was created first and the other galaxies grew out of ours.

Scientists have discovered that each galaxy has what is called a “black hole,” and these black holes are like a giant incinerator, as one black hole violently absorbs another black hole which then causes that black hole to enlarge. Black holes will also absorb stars or anything else that may enter into its gravitational pull. So just as the universe grew larger and larger, these black holes eventually will cause the universe to grow smaller and smaller until only our galaxy will be left once again. This is an interesting observation about black holes: “I think the standard story is that they lead to the end of time,” said Douglas Finkbeiner, professor of astronomy and physics at Harvard University. So it seems that the void that was from the beginning will be once more, for the God who created time is also the God who is in control of time.

Hebrew 1:10-12 tells us, 

You, Lord, in the beginning laid the foundation of the earth, and the heavens are the works of Your hands; they will perish, but You remain; and they all will become old like a garment, and like a mantle You will roll them up; like a garment they will also be changed. But You are the same, and Your years will not come to an end.

Revelation 8:12 says, 

The fourth angel sounded his trumpet, and a third of the sun was struck, a third of the moon, and a third of the stars, so that a third of them turned dark. A third of the day was without light, and also a third of the night.

And again in 2 Peter 3:10-12 it says

But the day of the Lord will come like a thief, in which the heavens will pass away with a roar and the elements will be destroyed with intense heat, and the earth and its works will be burned up. Since all these things are to be destroyed in this way, what sort of people ought you to be in holy conduct and godliness, looking for and hastening the coming of the day of God, because of which the heavens will be destroyed by burning, and the elements will melt with intense heat!

This end time scenario certainly sounds like the violent takeover of one black hole absorbing another, and we know that our galaxy will be the last takeover as recorded in these Scriptures. But as we go on, we will see that this Scripture also tells us about the creation. 

It is believed by scientists that there was a great explosion of gases and matter, which left these huge boulders floating in the atmosphere. They believe that Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars (what are called the “Inner Planets”) were formed at the beginning, and from them the gases, dust particles, and dark matter and the gravitational pull of the four planets helped form, over time, the rest of the planets, or what are called the “Outer Planets” of the solar system, as they collided with these planets to form the other planets. The remaining boulder-like fragments are in an area of the solar system which is called the asteroid belt (but there are still meteorites that come close to Earth, and some have even come through our atmosphere burning up as they fall to the ground). Beyond the asteroid belt we find what are called the frozen planets of Neptune (which, like Saturn, has rings) and Pluto along with several moons. These planets are billions of miles from the sun. 

One thing for sure: we know that all the planets are made of the same materials and they all had water on them at one time. So what happened to all the planets except Earth? At one time the universe was alive with water and maybe life—no, not aliens, but maybe plant life or microscopic life. At one time all the planets were close together before being thrown into outer space by the inner planets.

We know that creation is very much a mystery for us. As humans we do not always understand the great power and authority that God has. So if scientists say that the universe was because of a big bang, and if it was, it could only have been God who could have created the matter that did not exist and only God had such power to cause such an explosion.

We want to start by addressing the power of God. We know from Scripture that God is fire, as we see in Ezekiel 8:2, “Then I looked, and behold, a likeness as the appearance of a man; from His loins and downward there was the appearance of fire, and from His loins and upward the appearance of brightness, like the appearance of glowing metal.”

When Moses wanted to see just the glory of God, he could not or else he would have died. Exodus 33:18-23 tells us, 

Then Moses said, “Now show me Your glory.” And the Lord said, “I will cause all My goodness to pass in front of you, and I will proclaim My name, the Lord, in your presence. I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion. But,” He said, “you cannot see My face, for no one may see Me and live.” Then the Lord said, “There is a place near Me where you may stand on a rock. When My glory passes by, I will put you in a cleft in the rock and cover you with My hand until I have passed by. Then I will remove My hand and you will see My back; but My face must not be seen.”

God’s power, His might, and His glory are so powerful! If you would imagine the most powerful nuclear bomb that we possess, and then magnify it even 100 times (and that is just a figure, for no one knows just how powerful God is, but just for the sake of conversation), you can see why no one could even see God’s face because they would burn up. Our eyes cannot look upon an explosion such as that without it damaging our eyes because of its brightness. So God had to put Moses in the cleft of a rock and cover him, and after He had passed, Moses could only see a glimpse of God’s glory. Only such power, such force, could have created the universe. 

I know you will say that Scripture tells us that Moses spoke face to face with God, so what about that? Galatians 3:19-20 tells us, “The law was given through angels and entrusted to a mediator. A mediator, however, implies more than one party; but God is one.” And this is also mentioned in Acts 7:53, that the people of Israel “received the law as delivered by angels.” “Face to face with God” means that Moses was in God’s presence. He could no way have looked into the face of God and lived, at least not into the true face of God. 

It could only have been God who had the wisdom to create a world such as He did. He created a magnetic field around us to protect us. He placed the Earth just in the right spot so that we would not be overcome by the heat of the sun, and an orbit for each of the planets so that they would not collide. God turned the creation of chaos to peace. He told the waters that they could only go so far to create the dry ground. When God spoke, His Word went out from Him and created, for He calls those things that are not as though they are, as Romans 4:17 tells us, “He calls into being that which does not exist.” God has such authority over His creation that when He speaks all of heaven and Earth obey. Everything God did was measured by His wisdom and authority. 

We could go on and on, but if anyone gave a hard look into creation, they would have to see the truth, that there is a powerful, awesome God who is bigger and greater than His creation.

Genesis 1:2 reads, “The earth was without form and void, and darkness was over the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters.” But wait! If the world was without form and void, and darkness was over the face of the deep, where did all the water come from? God never said, “Let there be water” in the first verse. So what is going on? We see here that even though God removed Himself and that there was left a void and nothing but darkness, we also see that there was water. Isn’t that interesting that there should be water . . . Why water?

The Water

1 John 5:6-8 says this: 

This is the one who came by water and blood—Messiah Yeshua. He did not come by water only, but by water and blood. And it is the Spirit who testifies, because the Spirit is the truth. For there are three that testify: the Spirit, the water and the blood; and the three are in agreement.

So who is this water that testifies?

Jeremiah 2:13 says, “My people have committed two sins: They have forsaken Me, the spring of living water, and have dug their own cisterns, broken cisterns that cannot hold water.”

Jeremiah 17:13 tells us, “Lord, You are the hope of Israel; all who forsake You will be put to shame. Those who turn away from You will be written in the dust because they have forsaken the Lord, the spring of living water.”

Again, John 4:10 says, “Yeshua answered her, ‘If you knew the gift of God and who it is that asks you for a drink, you would have asked Him and He would have given you living water.’”

John 7:37-39 says, 

On the last day, the climax of the festival, Yeshua stood and shouted to the crowds, “Anyone who is thirsty may come to Me! Anyone who believes in Me may come and drink! For the Scriptures declare, ‘Rivers of living water will flow from his heart.’” (When He said “living water,” He was speaking of the Spirit, who would be given to everyone believing in Him. But the Spirit had not yet been given, because Yeshua had not yet entered into His glory.)

Revelation 22:1-2 tells us, 

Then the angel showed me the river of the water of life, bright as crystal, flowing from the throne of God and of the Lamb through the middle of the street of the city; also, on either side of the river, the tree of life with its twelve kinds of fruit, yielding its fruit each month. The leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations.

It makes sense now that even though God removed Himself, His glory—His living water—should still remain. When God made man, He made us to know just how important water is to our lives.

Scientists have now discovered that Mars had rivers, and even a body of water ten times the size of the Great Lakes. But what happened to the water on Mars and the other planets? Why did the water dry up on all the other planets and not on the Earth? There is no doubt that there are mysteries to God, and maybe one day we will know the truth about them all. But as we look at what God has for us to know, we must take everything at face value and have faith.

Psalm 104:2-3a tells us, “The Lord wraps Himself in light as with a garment; He stretches out the heavens like a tent and lays the beams of His upper chambers on their waters.” I think the answer is in this Psalm. When God created the universe, the universe was all together, and we know that the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters. We also know that God is fire, and He may have allowed the planets to be fertile and watered. But come the fourth day, when He created the sun, moon, and stars, He did just what the Psalm said He did: He stretched out the heavens. Like we read earlier, the galaxy grew into galaxies and the planets closer to the sun, well, the heat dried up the water and burned the vegetation; and the farther away from the heat of the sun the planets went, they grew cold and dark and lifeless, but the Earth was at just the right distance to maintain life. 

We see that God begins to separate our waters here on Earth. Did you know that God is a divider? Let’s take a closer look.

God the Great Divider

Genesis 1:6-8 tells us, 

And God said, “Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters.” And God made the expanse and separated the waters that were under the expanse from the waters that were above the expanse. And it was so. And God called the expanse Heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, the second day.

Genesis 1:9-10 continues, 

And God said, “Let the waters under the heavens be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear.” And it was so. God called the dry land Earth, and the waters that were gathered together He called Seas. And God saw that it was good.

Psalm 104:5-13 tells us, 

He set the earth on its foundations; it can never be moved. You covered it with the watery depths as with a garment; the waters stood above the mountains. But at Your rebuke the waters fled, at the sound of Your thunder they took to flight; they flowed over the mountains, they went down into the valleys, to the place You assigned for them. You set a boundary they cannot cross; never again will they cover the earth. He makes springs pour water into the ravines; it flows between the mountains. They give water to all the beasts of the field; the wild donkeys quench their thirst. The birds of the sky nest by the waters, they sing among the branches. He waters the mountains from His upper chambers; the land is satisfied by the fruit of His work.

God has been dividing from the beginning. In the Havdalah (meaning “separated”) ceremony, at the end of the Sabbath, you say a blessing that goes like this: 

Deserving of praise are You, O Lord our God, Ruler of the universe, who made a distinction between holy and common, between light and darkness, between Israel and the nations, between the seventh day and the six working days. Deserving of praise are You, O Lord, who distinguishes between holy and common.

Matthew gives us the words of Yeshua in Matthew 10:34-36

Do not think that I have come to bring peace to the earth. I have not come to bring peace, but a sword. For I have come to set a man against his father, and a daughter against her mother, and a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law. And a person’s enemies will be those of his own household.

Matthew tells us about another time when Yeshua speaks about dividing, in Matthew 24:40-41: “Then there will be two men in the field; one will be taken and one will be left. Two women will be grinding at the mill; one will be taken and one will be left.”

And one last time in Matthew 25:31–42

But when the Son of Man comes in His glory, and all the holy angels with Him, then He will sit on the throne of His glory. Before Him all the nations will be gathered, and He will separate them one from another, as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats.

As God continued to divide throughout Scripture, let’s continue as we examine how God divided the water. So how did God divide the waters? Well, maybe by the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit is also known as the “wind.” 

We see in the story of the flood that God sent a wind. Genesis 8:1 tells us, “But God remembered Noah and all the wild animals and the livestock that were with him in the ark, and He sent a wind over the earth, and the waters receded.”

We see with Noah that he sent out the dove, and the first time the dove hovered over the water, for there was no place for it; and the second time the water had receded or parted, and the dry land appeared, and the dove came back with an olive branch. We will take a closer look at the flood later.

If the Holy Spirit was present then during the flood, did God also use the Holy Spirit, “the wind,” to separate the waters at creation like at the parting of the Red Sea? Yes, we see in the story of the parting of the Red Sea exactly the same thing as in the creation story. We know that Pharaoh was pursuing the Israelites and they feared for their lives. So let’s take a closer look.

Exodus 14:19-20 tells us, 

Then the angel of God, who had been traveling in front of Israel’s army, withdrew and went behind them. The pillar of cloud also moved from in front and stood behind them, coming between the armies of Egypt and Israel. Throughout the night the cloud brought darkness to the one side and light to the other side; so neither went near the other all night long.

We see here that God divided, once again, the light from the darkness.

Exodus 14:21-22 continues, 

Then Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and all that night the Lord drove the sea back with a strong east wind and turned it into dry land. The waters were divided, and the Israelites went through the sea on dry ground, with a wall of water on their right and on their left.

Again we see God dividing the waters to form dry land, and He used the wind to do it. And so the people crossed on dry land. 

Well, you may say, if the splitting of the Red Sea parallels creation, then where are the animals and the vegetation? The Israelites crossed with their livestock, and according to Jewish commentary it is believed that as they crossed there were fruit trees that lined their path so that they could eat from the trees as they crossed: a picture of the Garden of Eden. And you know that if you have the garden, you have to have the Adversary—which we do have in this story, for we know that Pharaoh’s army pursued, and they all drowned in the water. 

So after all that, we can come to the conclusion that the Holy Spirit, the “wind,” was hovering over the water and dividing it. Scripture will always point to the truth.

We also see that Yeshua had complete control of the wind and the waves in Mark 4:37-41

And a great windstorm arose, and the waves were breaking into the boat, so that the boat was already filling. But He was in the stern, asleep on the cushion. And they woke Him and said to Him, “Teacher, do You not care that we are perishing?” And He awoke and rebuked the wind and said to the sea, “Peace! Be still!” And the wind ceased, and there was a great calm. He said to them, “Why are you so afraid? Have you still no faith?” And they were filled with great fear and said to one another, “Who then is this, that even the wind and the sea obey Him?”

Shouldn’t the one who created have control over His creation? Yes, and all throughout creation we see that God had control as this great phenomenon was taking place with a fiery, fierce, and powerful exhibition of God’s Word and authority over His creation. He spoke and called those things that were not as though they were, as only He can.

God Separated the Light

But let us go back. As we continue we see in verses 3-5 that God continues His creation, as it says,

And God said, “Let there be light,” and there was light. God saw that the light was good, and He separated the light from the darkness. God called the light “day,” and the darkness He called “night.” And there was evening, and there was morning—the first day.

So God separated the light from the darkness. Now, many people feel that God was separating His kingdom of light from that of the kingdom of darkness, and that could be true, for 1 Thessalonians 5:5 tells us, “You are all children of the light and children of the day. We do not belong to the night or to the darkness.” We will see later that this could only have been done symbolically for we will discuss, when did the angels fall?

But for now you may ask, “How could God separate the light from the darkness, since the sun and the moon had not yet been created?” We see that verses 1-5 are all on the first day. We know that God is all light, and when He removed part of Himself to make space it left a void, and the light that once was, was now gone, so only darkness remained. God spoke light into that void. And what was that light? Nothing other than His Word. 

It is believed that God spoke His Torah (teachings) in the 70 known languages at the time of Noah, at Mount Sinai, and then again at Pentecost. I believe that this was also the case at the time of creation. When God spoke His creation into being, it was His Torah, His great wisdom and understanding and knowledge, that caused all things to come into being. This is the Word that was made flesh, as it tells us in 1 Peter 1:20, “For He was foreknown before the foundation of the world, but has appeared in these last times for the sake of you.” 

The rabbis also associate the light of creation with the Messiah: 

The Torah tells us, “God said, ‘Let there be light,’” to reveal that God will ultimately illuminate Israel with the light of the messiah, of whom it is written, “Arise, shine; for your light has come …”—the light being, of course, the Messiah … The verse “Let there be light” teaches that God created the world through this light, for immediately after these words the creation began. (Tz’enah Ur’enah on Genesis 1:3)

We see in verse 2 that the Spirit of God was present as God was creating. The Holy Spirit is also called the Spirit of Messiah. Philippians 1:19 says, “for I know that through your prayers and the help of the Spirit of Yeshua Messiah this will turn out for my deliverance.” And 1 Peter 1:11 says that the prophets were given insight into the future through the “Spirit of Messiah in them.” The rabbis believed that the Spirit of God that was hovering over the waters was the Spirit of Messiah: “‘The Spirit of God was moving over the surface of the waters.’ This was the Spirit of Messiah as it is written, ‘The Spirit of the Lord will rest on him’” (Bereshit Rabbah 1:2, quoting Isaiah 11:1-2). It is interesting that the rabbis chose Isaiah 11 to make the connection between the Messiah and the Holy Spirit. Yeshua quotes a similarly phrased passage about Himself making this same comparison when he quotes Isaiah 61:1, recorded in Luke 4:18, “The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me, because He has anointed Me to proclaim good news to the poor.” His Word and His Spirit were all a part of the creation. 

If we look to the armor of God in Ephesians 6:17, we see that the sword of the Spirit is the Word of God. The Spirit and the Word are one, and Yeshua tells us in John 8:12, “I am the light of the world. Whoever follows Me will not walk in darkness, but will have the light of life.”

John 1:1-5 tells us, 

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things were made through Him, and without Him was not anything made that was made. In Him was life, and the life was the light of men. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it. 

And again, John 1:9-10 says this: “The true Light, which gives light to everyone, was coming into the world. He was in the world, and the world was made through Him, yet the world did not know Him”

Not till day four did God create the rest of the universe as Genesis 1:14-19 tells us:

And God said, “Let there be lights in the vault of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark sacred times, and days and years, and let them be lights in the vault of the sky to give light on the earth.” And it was so. God made two great lights—the greater light to govern the day and the lesser light to govern the night. He also made the stars. God set them in the vault of the sky to give light on the earth, to govern the day and the night, and to separate light from darkness. And God saw that it was good. And there was evening, and there was morning—the fourth day.


We said all that just to say this: in verse 3 we see that God, for the first time, spoke when He said “Let there be light.” Up until now, there was no need for God to verbally speak because in the spiritual realm, well, do they even talk? Or do they communicate by telepathic communications, mind to mind? 

We know that the speed of sound depends on the type of medium and temperature of the medium. We know that air is a gas, and not to go into a deep discussion, we know that our atmosphere and the whole galaxy for that matter is made up of gases. When God spoke, we know that His word went out like sound waves throughout the existing universe at the speed of sound, which is about 4.7 miles per second; or God may have spoken His words and they could have gone out like a supersonic jet that breaks the sound barrier, which was discovered many thousands of years later. So we see here that God not only created light but sound. 

We also find that according to quantum physics (which is the study of matter and energy at very small, nanoscopic levels, beginning with nuclei, atoms, and molecules, also called quantum particles), the universe is made up of lightwaves, like a big safety net of light. Light speed is calculated differently than sound. Light calculated in a vacuum travels at a constant, finite speed of 186,000 mi./sec. This means that in one year, light can travel a distance of 6 trillion miles. An interesting consequence of the speed of light is that we do not actually see things as they currently are. The light reflecting off of every object on Earth takes some time to reach our eyes. For the objects we encounter on a daily basis, this delay is almost nonexistent: when you are looking at an object 1 meter away, the light reflected off of that object takes about three-billionths of a second to reach your eye. This delay becomes more significant on a cosmic scale. For example, the famous North Star, also called Polaris, is about 323 lightyears away from Earth. That means light from Polaris takes 323 years to reach Earth. When you look up at this star, you do not see it as it currently is. The light reaching your eye in that moment took 323 years to get to you, so you are actually in a sense looking into the past. To reverse this perspective, a hypothetical observer on Polaris in 2020 looking at Earth would not see you or me; instead, they would see Earth as it was in the year 1697. According to NASA, a traveler moving at the speed of light would circumnavigate the equator approximately 7.5 times in one second. By comparison, a traveler in a jet aircraft, moving at a ground speed of 500 mph, would cross the continental U.S. once in 4 hours. 

So let’s read this again. Quantum theory tells us that both light and matter consist of tiny particles which have wavelike properties associated with them. Light is composed of particles called photons, and matter is composed of particles called electrons, protons, and neutrons. When God spoke, “Let there be light,” He also created sound and the foundation for the universe of light waves. Hebrews 11:3 tells us this according to the Amplified Bible: 

By faith [that is, with an inherent trust and enduring confidence in the power, wisdom and goodness of God] we understand that the worlds (universe, ages) were framed and created [formed, put in order, and equipped for their intended purpose] by the word of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things which are visible.

So in other words, everything we see is made up of quantum particles, and light holds it all together.

God’s creation is so unbelievably awesome that every night we look at the stars and every day we see all that is around us, and all we can do is thank God that He so loved us that He created.

Naming Rights

Since the beginning of man, it has been thought that the one who gave a name had the power over that which was named. God named the day, night, and sky, and all of that gave Him sovereignty over time and space. We will see later that God allowed Adam to name the animals, and so God gave man dominion over them.

The Scriptures refer to named star constellations in Amos 5:8

He who made the Pleiades and Orion, and turns deep darkness into the morning and darkens the day into night, who calls for the waters of the sea and pours them out on the surface of the earth, the Lord is His name.

Job 38:31-33 also mentions constellations: 

Can you bind the chains of the Pleiades? Can you loosen Orion’s belt? Can you bring forth the constellations in their seasons or lead out the Bear with its cubs? Do you know the laws of the heavens? Can you set up God’s dominion over the earth?

Psalm 19:1 says, “The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of His hands.” 

So once again we see Romans 1:20 to be so evident: “For since the creation of the world God’s invisible qualities—His eternal power and divine nature—have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that people are without excuse.”

It is believed that God used the stars to tell the gospel. But we must be careful, because the constellations have been used for the sake of the horoscope and other things that are not from God.

The Calendar

In the creation account we see that first came the evening and then the morning. God created time along with space, but we see that God’s time started with evening, and then came morning. God uses a lunar calendar, and this separates God’s people who are light from the darkness of the pagans who are void of God. Throughout history, pagan empires have created calendars in opposition to God. But God from the beginning of creation meant time to be based on His lunar calendar.

We also see that God named each day as “day one” and “day two” and “day three” and so forth. He never called them “Sunday,” “Monday,” or “Tuesday.” These are all pagan names. 

We also see that God created six days for man and one for Himself. Today we see that there are 24 hours in a day. That day is broken up into divisions: 60 minutes in an hour and 60 seconds in every minute. All of these are based on the number 6. We also know that many calendars, going back as far as early Babylon in Mesopotamia to the 3rd millennium BCE, used a 360-day calendar with 5 extra days, and along with the leap year this gives the basis for the number 6. The early Middle Eastern calendars only had two 6-month seasons—summer and winter. But one thing they all had in common was that the new month started at the new moon. 

Over history, man has not been able to get an accurate calendar to line up with the celestial and the seasonal, especially after the Flood. It was as though there was a movement between the lunar and the solar. Today the Jewish people still use a lunar calendar with each month beginning at the new moon, each month having 29-30 days. 

Today the Jewish calendar does not come close to what is considered  the correct date. They are about 200 years off.  We know that today on our calendar we are in the third millennium. So if the Jewish calendar has the right number of years, then there was only 3,740 years  before the Common Era instead of 4,000 years. Can this be right? No, it is not right, for no one’s calendar is correct. Over the decades and centuries and even millennia the counting of time has changed. Maybe God has made time fluid so that only He knows the times and the days. No one can calculate the coming of the Lord, for He will come as a thief in the night. 

But we do know that the moon was designed to mark God’s sacred times, or in Hebrew, Moadim. These sacred times from creation are for all of God’s people. The new moon brought in these celebrated times, as it tells us in Numbers 10:10

On the day of your gladness also, and at your appointed feasts and at the beginnings of your months, you shall blow the trumpets over your burnt offerings and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings. They shall be a reminder of you before your God: I am the Lord your God.

In Hebrew the new moon is called Rosh Chodesh, meaning, “head of the month.” We see that the new month celebration shall be continued into the reign of Messiah, for Isaiah 66:18-23 gives us this insight: 

For I know their works and their thoughts, and the time is coming to gather all nations and tongues. And they shall come and shall see My glory, and I will set a sign among them. And from them I will send survivors to the nations, to Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, who draw the bow, to Tubal and Javan, to the coastlands far away, that have not heard My fame or seen My glory. And they shall declare My glory among the nations. And they shall bring all your brothers from all the nations as an offering to the Lord, on horses and in chariots and in litters and on mules and on dromedaries, to My holy mountain Jerusalem, says the Lord, just as the Israelites bring their grain offering in a clean vessel to the house of the Lord. And some of them also I will take for priests and for Levites, says the Lord. For as the new heavens and the new earth that I make shall remain before Me, says the Lord, so shall your offspring and your name remain. From new moon to new moon, and from Sabbath to Sabbath, all flesh shall come to worship before Me, declares the Lord.

So we see that all of God’s people will be celebrating the New Month celebrations and the Sabbath.

Biblical Feast Days

Leviticus 23 speaks of the Appointed Times of Passover, Unleavened Bread, First Fruits, Pentecost, the Feast of Trumpets, the Day of Atonement, and the Feast of Tabernacles, as well as the seventh day of rest, the Sabbath. All of God’s times begin at sundown and go till the following sundown.

These feast days also tell of the gospel. Passover is the day that our Messiah became our Passover Lamb, unleavened, without sin, as 1 Corinthians 5:6-8 says, 

Your boasting is not good. Do you not know that a little leaven leavens the whole lump? Cleanse out the old leaven that you may be a new lump, as you really are unleavened. For Messiah, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed. Let us therefore celebrate the festival, not with the old leaven, the leaven of malice and evil, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.

Regarding First Fruits, Messiah is the first fruits from the dead, which we celebrate as the “Resurrection Day”—not Easter, which is named after a pagan god—as written in 1 Corinthians 15:20, “But now Messiah has been raised from the dead, the first fruits of those who are asleep.”

The Messiah tells us that He will send the Comforter, the Holy Spirit, in John 14:16, “And I will ask the Father, and He shall give you another Comforter, that He may abide with you forever.” And in Acts 2 we see Him come with tongues of fire on Pentecost (Shavuot). All of these have been fulfilled. They are called the Spring Feasts. 

But the Fall Feasts are about Messiah’s second coming. The Feast of Trumpets is about the Messiah coming back as King of His Kingdom, with the sound of the trumpet. He will gather His people, as Matthew 24:31 tells us: “And He will send His angels with a loud trumpet call, and they will gather His elect from the four winds, from one end of the heavens to the other.”

The Day of Atonement is about the day of judgement, when all the books will be opened, as Revelation 20:12 tells us, 

And I saw the dead, great and small, standing before the throne, and books were opened. Then another book was opened, which is the book of life. And the dead were judged by what was written in the books, according to what they had done. 

Is your name written in the Lamb’s Book of Life? If it is, then your eternal dwelling will be God Himself:

Then I saw “a new heaven and a new earth,” for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and there was no longer any sea. I saw the Holy City, the new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride beautifully dressed for her husband. And I heard a loud voice from the throne saying, “Look! God’s dwelling place is now among the people, and He will dwell with them. They will be His people, and God Himself will be with them and be their God. ‘He will wipe every tear from their eyes. There will be no more death’ or mourning or crying or pain, for the old order of things has passed away.” (Revelation 21:1-4)

The theme of the Feast of Tabernacles is “God with us,” Immanuel. This is why they believe that Yeshua was born on the first day of the feast and circumcised on the eighth day, which is called “Rejoicing in the word,” Simchat Torah.

The last Appointed Time is the Sabbath. The Sabbath represents eternity with God. 

Thus the heavens and the earth were completed in all their vast array. By the seventh day God had finished the work He had been doing; so on the seventh day He rested from all His work. Then God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it He rested from all the work of creating that He had done. (Genesis 2:1-2)

As we see, the Sabbath was created for mankind as a whole, not just for a single group of people, as the Scriptures tell us in Mark 2:27-28, “The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath. So the Son of Man is Lord even of the Sabbath.” The Sabbath was made for man, and our Messiah is its Lord. As we saw in Isaiah 66, all of God’s people will be celebrating the seventh day Sabbath that was set apart from the beginning of creation.

Hebrews 4:9-11 says, 

There remains, then, a Sabbath rest for the people of God. For whoever enters God’s rest also rests from his own work, just as God did from His. Let us, therefore, make every effort to enter that rest, so that no one will fall by following the same pattern of disobedience.

The Sabbath was the crown jewel of all creation. It was here that God and His creation became one. So we see that when God saw that all was good, He rested on the seventh day and blessed the seventh day and made it holy (or you could say, He set it apart from all the other days). And so all mankind must also consider this day holy. The seventh day is not Sunday or Friday, but the seventh day to us today is Saturday, and it must be remembered and kept holy, for it is the Sabbath.

Many people believe that creation took place in 6 actual days, and others believe that each day equaled a thousand years. Psalm 90:4 tells us, “A thousand years in Your sight are like a day that has just gone by, or like a watch in the night.”

And 2 Peter 3:8 also tells us, “A thousand years in Your sight are like a day that has just gone by, or like a watch in the night.” So if one day to God is a thousand years, then you could say that creation took God 6,000 years to create.

Albert Einstein, with his Theory of Relativity, discovered that the further you travel in the universe, time becomes irrelevant. He also discovered that there is a point where the past, present, and future are all at the same time. Did Einstein discover the mystery of God? I’m not sure, but one thing we have learned from creation is that we must be people of light and not darkness. We must be people of the day and not night.

Einstein, who did not believe in God, wrote the following statement about death. It comes from a letter to the family of Michele Besso, his life-long collaborator and closest friend, and was written a few days after Einstein learned of his death:

Now he has departed from this strange world a little ahead of me. That means nothing. People like us, who believe in physics, know that the distinction between past, present and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion.

Einstein did not reject the existence of time. Instead, he rejected the distinction between past, present, and future. This may seem like a minor difference, but it is not. Albert Einstein was closer to believing in God than he realized.

Psalm 19:1-6 tells us, 

The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of His hands. Day after day they pour forth speech; night after night they reveal knowledge. They have no speech, they use no words; no sound is heard from them. Yet their voice goes out into all the earth, their words to the ends of the world. In the heavens God has pitched a tent for the sun. It is like a bridegroom coming out of his chamber, like a champion rejoicing to run his course. It rises at one end of the heavens and makes its circuit to the other; nothing is deprived of its warmth.


So let’s continue. Genesis 1:20-23 goes on to say that on the fifth day, God filled the waters with living creatures and He filled the sky with birds:

And God said, “Let the waters swarm with swarms of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the expanse of the heavens.” So God created the great sea creatures and every living creature that moves, with which the waters swarm, according to their kinds, and every winged bird according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. And God blessed them, saying, “Be fruitful and multiply and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth.” And there was evening and there was morning, the fifth day.

Life began on Earth as early as the third day. On the third day, God created vegetation and trees, all bearing seeds so that His creation could continue to multiply on the earth.

And God said, “Let the earth sprout vegetation, plants yielding seed, and fruit trees bearing fruit in which is their seed, each according to its kind, on the earth.” And it was so. The earth brought forth vegetation, plants yielding seed according to their own kinds, and trees bearing fruit in which is their seed, each according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. And there was evening and there was morning, the third day.

It is very interesting that in between creating the birds and fish and vegetation, He created the sun, moon, and stars. As we saw, the sun and moon and stars were not only created to separate day from night, but to mark the sacred times and days and years. Many of God’s Appointed Times reflect the different growing seasons, and so it makes sense that God placed the timing of His creation of these so-called “markers” right after He created the vegetation. It all falls in line with the timing of the harvests.

So now this takes us to the sixth day. Genesis 1:24-25 tells us this: 

“Let the land produce living creatures according to their kinds: the livestock, the creatures that move along the ground, and the wild animals, each according to its kind.” And it was so. God made the wild animals according to their kinds, the livestock according to their kinds, and all the creatures that move along the ground according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good.

Now that there was grass upon the earth, God created the animals, but God needed someone to take care of His creation.

Genesis 1:26-27 says, 

Then God said, “Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness, so that they may rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky, over the livestock and all the wild animals, and over all the creatures that move along the ground.” So God created mankind in His own image, in the image of God He created them; male and female He created them.

When God created man, He created him in His image. What does that mean? It means that God is a Spirit, and we too have an eternal spirit. He also made man with the ability to have knowledge and understanding. He gave us the capability of making decisions and having certain of God’s characteristics, like love. The rabbis interpret the statement, “Let us make man in our image” as a reference to God and the angels. They say that God consulted the angels in His creation of man as a sign of respect towards them. Rashi says in his commentary on Genesis 1:26, “From here we learn the humility of the Holy One, blessed be He. Since man was created in the likeness of the angels, and they would envy him, He consulted them.” Another interpretation says that the “us” is God and His Torah. “The Holy One, blessed be He, spake to the Torah: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness.’” Interestingly, in this story the Torah responds with an objection: 

(The Torah) spake before Him: Sovereign of all the worlds! The man whom Thou wouldst create will be limited in days and full of anger; and he will come into the power of sin. Unless Thou wilt be long-suffering with him, it would be well for him not to have come into the world. The Holy One, blessed be He, rejoined: And is it for nought that I am called ‘slow to anger’ and ‘abounding in love’?” (Pirkei de Rabbi Eliezer 11:5)

In no way does or should man be compared to an animal just because they were created on the same day. God cannot be compared to an animal, and if we are made in His image then we ought not be compared to an animal either—which also means that we did not evolve from one. Psalm 8 speaks of man and his place in creation:

Lord, our Lord, how majestic is Your name in all the earth! You have set Your glory in the heavens. Through the praise of children and infants You have established a stronghold against Your enemies, to silence the foe and the avenger. When I consider Your heavens, the work of Your fingers, the moon and the stars, which You have set in place, what is mankind that You are mindful of them, human beings that You care for them? You have made them a little lower than the angels and crowned them with glory and honor. You made them rulers over the works of Your hands; You put everything under their feet: all flocks and herds, and the animals of the wild, the birds in the sky, and the fish in the sea, all that swim the paths of the seas. Lord, our Lord, how majestic is Your name in all the earth!

We see clearly that man was made just a little lower than the angels and that man has the authority over all of God’s creation. There is an interesting rabbinic story about Adam and the angels. According to a passage in Bereshit Rabbah, a group of angels objected to the creation of mankind, seeing that humans would bring evil into the world: 

R. Simon said: When the time came for the Holy Blessed One to make the first human being, The Ministering Angels made themselves into competing counsels, with one group opposing the other. Some of them said, “Don’t create humans,” and the others said “Create them.” So it is written: “Kindness and Truth met against one another, Righteousness and Peace faced each other.” The angel of Kindness said, “Create them, for they will do acts of loving kindness.” Then the angel of Truth said, “Do not create them, for they will be full of lies.” The angel of Righteousness said, “Create them, for they will establish justice.” The angel of Peace said, “Do not create them, for they will be in constant strife!” . . . R. Huna of Tzipori said: While the Ministering Angels were occupying one another with litigation and debate, The Holy Blessed One created them and turned to the angels saying, “What are you arguing about? Humans have already been created.” (Bereshit Rabbah 8:5) 

Although through this parable the rabbis acknowledged these negative traits in humanity and our potential for wickedness, they also recognized the glory and authority that God gave humanity. They understood that we must use this gift correctly. One story says that when Adam was created, he had such a glorious appearance that the animals all tried to worship him. 

All the creatures saw him and became afraid of him, thinking that he was their Creator, and they came to prostrate themselves before him. Adam said to them: What (is this), ye creatures! Why are ye come to prostrate yourselves before me? Come, I and you, let us go and adorn in majesty and might, and acclaim as King over us the One who created us. If there be no people to acclaim the king as king, the king acclaims himself. If there be no people to praise the king, the king praises himself. In that hour Adam opened his mouth and all the creatures answered after him, and they adorned in majesty and might and acclaimed their Creator as King over themselves, and they said, “The Lord reigneth, he is apparelled with majesty” (Pirkei de Rabbi Eliezer 11:9-10). 

Part of man’s dominion over the earth includes the consequence of his sin: that the earth was cursed: 

Because you have listened to the voice of your wife and have eaten of the tree of which I commanded you, “You shall not eat of it,” cursed is the ground because of you; in pain you shall eat of it all the days of your life; thorns and thistles it shall bring forth for you; and you shall eat the plants of the field.(Genesis 3:17-18)

Creation now longs for the redemption that will come in the Messianic Era when it will be restored again to the way it was in Eden, before the earth was cursed due to man’s disobedience:

For the creation waits with eager longing for the revealing of the sons of God. For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of him who subjected it, in hope that the creation itself will be set free from its bondage to corruption and obtain the freedom of the glory of the children of God. For we know that the whole creation has been groaning together in the pains of childbirth until now. (Romans 8:19-22)

In the Kingdom, Messiah, as the second Adam, will then have the dominion over a restored creation. Isaiah 55:12-13 says, 

For you shall go out in joy and be led forth in peace; the mountains and the hills before you shall break forth into singing, and all the trees of the field shall clap their hands. Instead of the thorn shall come up the cypress; instead of the brier shall come up the myrtle; and it shall make a name for the Lord, an everlasting sign that shall not be cut off.

And Leviticus 26:4-5 likewise says,

Then I will give you your rains in their season, and the land shall yield its increase, and the trees of the field shall yield their fruit. Your threshing shall last to the time of the grape harvest, and the grape harvest shall last to the time for sowing. And you shall eat your bread to the full and dwell in your land securely.

In the meantime, mankind’s dominionship over nature does not mean he may rule as a tyrant. The rabbis emphasized that we are supposed to take care of the earth and be good stewards. Kohelet Rabbah 7:20 contains a short story that makes this point: 

When the Holy One, blessed be He, created the first man, He took him and led him round all the trees of the Garden of Eden, and said to him, “Behold My works, how beautiful and praiseworthy they are! All that I have created, I have created for you. Pay heed that you do not damage and destroy My universe; for if you damage it there is no one to repair it after you.”

So let us stop here and let’s look at chapter 2 of Genesis, where we see that the creation account is retold. Why is that?

Genesis 2:1 begins by saying, “Thus the heavens and the earth were completed in all their vast array.” 

Genesis 2:2-3 goes on to tell us that God’s work was finished: 

By the seventh day God had finished the work He had been doing; so on the seventh day He rested from all His work. Then God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it He rested from all the work of creating that He had done.

So God saw that all was good and He rested on the seventh day and blessed the seventh day and made it holy (or you could say, He set it apart from all the other days). This was God’s last Appointed Time that He created, and because God set the day apart, all mankind should also consider this day holy. Jewish theologian Abraham Heschel has famously referred to the Sabbath as a sanctuary in time. Just like the physical sanctuary of the temple was a holy place in physical space, the Sabbath functions as a holy place in time because it was set apart for that purpose by God. It is sanctified when we honor its boundaries. Since the Sabbath was inaugurated in Eden, it is an open invitation to all humanity. 

We see now that God’s creation is finished, and we can say that this Great Architect, this Master Builder, this Great Artist, has designed and built and painted a beautiful picture of Himself, a picture of His love. And to that, we can say with Him, “It is good”. Let us join in with the Psalmist as he writes in Psalm 57:9-11

I will praise You, Lord, among the nations; I will sing of You among the peoples. For great is Your love, reaching to the heavens; Your faithfulness reaches to the skies. Be exalted, O God, above the heavens; let Your glory be over all the earth.

Genesis 2:4-6 continues, 

This is the account of the heavens and the earth when they were created, when the Lord God made the earth and the heavens. Now no shrub had yet appeared on the earth and no plant had yet sprung up, for the Lord God had not sent rain on the earth and there was no one to work the ground, but a mist came up from the earth and watered the whole surface of the ground. 

Because the Scripture tells us that no shrub or plant had sprung up yet since God had not yet sent rain, but mist came up from the earth, we can assume that this is referring to the beginning of the third day of creation, as it tells us in Genesis 1:9-13

And God said, “Let the water under the sky be gathered to one place, and let dry ground appear.” And it was so. God called the dry ground “land,” and the gathered waters he called “seas.” And God saw that it was good. Then God said, “Let the land produce vegetation: seed-bearing plants and trees on the land that bear fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds.” And it was so. The land produced vegetation: plants bearing seed according to their kinds and trees bearing fruit with seed in it according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good. And there was evening, and there was morning—the third day.

The passage in Genesis 2 means that in the days of Noah people had never seen rain before, thus it really was by faith that Noah built the ark, as Hebrews 11:7. tells us, 

By faith Noah, being warned by God concerning events as yet unseen, in reverent fear constructed an ark for the saving of his household. By this he condemned the world and became an heir of the righteousness that comes by faith.

So how was the vegetation watered? Genesis 2:4-6 tells us: by the “mist”. Let’s stop here to look closer at this mist. 

The Dew of Heaven

This mist is also called “the dew” (tal in Hebrew), referring to the morning dew and the night time dew. In times of heat and drought the dew is very important. The dew is often called “the dew of heaven.” It was a blessing from God. 

When Isaac blessed Jacob, part of that blessing had to do with the dew. Genesis 27:28 says, “May God give you heaven’s dew and earth’s richness—an abundance of grain and new wine.”

But to Esau we see there would be no blessing of dew, as in Genesis 27:39 it says, “Then Isaac his father answered and said to him, ‘Behold, away from the fertility of the earth shall be your dwelling, and away from the dew of heaven from above.’”

We see the manna came with the dew, as Exodus 16:13-14 tells us, 

So it came about at evening that the quails came up and covered the camp, and in the morning there was a layer of dew around the camp. When the layer of dew evaporated, behold, on the surface of the wilderness there was a fine flake-like thing, fine as the frost on the ground.

Numbers 11:9 likewise says, “When the dew fell on the camp at night, the manna would fall with it.”

We know that Yeshua (the Word of God made flesh) is the true manna from heaven, as He tells us in John 6:48-51

I am the bread of life. Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, and they died. This is the bread which comes down out of heaven, so that one may eat of it and not die. I am the living bread that came down out of heaven; if anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever; and the bread also which I will give for the life of the world is My flesh.

We continue to see dew as a blessing. Deuteronomy 33:28 says, “So Israel dwells in security, the fountain of Jacob secluded, in a land of grain and new wine; his heavens also drop down dew.”

What was a blessing from God could also become a judgment from God, as we see in 1 Kings 17:1, “Now Elijah the Tishbite, from Tishbe in Gilead, said to Ahab, ‘As the Lord, the God of Israel, lives, whom I serve, there will be neither dew nor rain in the next few years except at my word.’”

And again in Haggai 1:9-10

“You expected much, but see, it turned out to be little. What you brought home, I blew away. Why?” declares the Lord Almighty. “Because of My house, which remains a ruin, while each of you is busy with your own house. Therefore, because of you the heavens have withheld their dew and the earth its crops.”

2 Samuel 1:21 likewise says, “O mountains of Gilboa, let not dew or rain be on you, nor fields of offerings; for there the shield of the mighty was defiled, the shield of Saul, not anointed with oil.”

Proverbs gives us another take on the word dew in Proverbs 19:12, “A king’s rage is like the roar of a lion, but his favor is like dew on the grass.”

Here we see the dew as God’s grace or mercy.

Micah 5:7 tells us that God’s people will be like the dew bringing a blessing as they go throughout the world: “Then the remnant of Jacob will be among many peoples like dew from the Lord, like showers on vegetation.”

Isaiah 26:19 speaks of the dew and relates it to the resurrection from the dead: “Your dead will live; their corpses will rise. You who lie in the dust, awake and shout for joy, for your dew is as the dew of the dawn, and the earth will give birth to the departed spirits.”

So if the dew represents the redeemed of the Lord in the resurrection, then we can say that Romans 6:4 is also true, “We were therefore buried with Him through baptism into death in order that, just as Messiah was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, we too may live a new life.”

We can say correctly that the dew of heaven is truly part of the covenant.

Male and Female 

Let us continue in Genesis 2, for it leaves us with questions. 

You notice in the first account of the creation of mankind that God refers to His creation in a generic manner, “male and female.” The creation of male and female has the Jewish scholars believing that this generic reference is because God created the first human to be both male and female as one being. The rabbis came up with the idea that Adam was created as an androgyne (an androgynous person, both sexes in one individual) by comparing the creation of humans in Genesis 1 with the creation of Eve from Adam’s rib in Genesis 2: whereas in Genesis 1 it says they were created together, in Genesis 2 Eve is created from Adam. So to resolve this, they posited that Adam was created both male and female in one body, and that in Genesis 2 God separated Eve and Adam into two beings. This is found in Bereshit Rabbah 8:1: 

Said R’ Yirmiyah ben Elazar: In the hour when the Holy One created the first human, He created him [as] an androgyne/androginos, as it is said, “male and female He created them”. Said R’ Shmuel bar Nachmani: In the hour when the Holy One created the first human, He created [for] him a double-face, and sawed him and made him backs, a back here and a back here, as it is said, “Back (achor) and before (qedem) You formed me” [Psalm 139:5]. 

Some of the rabbis objected to this interpretation, since in Genesis 2 God takes one of Adam’s ribs to create Eve. Those who supported the androgyne position appealed to Exodus 26:20, where the same root word translated “rib” in Genesis 2 refers to one of the sides of the tabernacle; thus, God took one of Adam’s sides, or halves, to create Eve. This conversation is repeated in Vayikrah Rabbah 14:1: 

Said Rav Shmuel bar Nachman: When the Holy One, blessed be He, created the first man, He created him as an androgynous being. Reish Lakish [said]: When it was created, dual faces [together] were created, and it was cut, and two were made. [One] back was male, [one] back was female.

The myth of the androgyne may not be as far-fetched as it appears on the surface. An extremely rare anomaly during developmental stages in some species of animals causes them to become “bilateral gynandromorphs”: half of their body structure is male and the other half is female. These animals appear as if someone cut a male and female organism in half and sewed them seamlessly together. These gynandromorphs differ from hermaphrodites because they contain both male and female body structure combined rather than just male and female sexual organs. 

Remember that man was created in God’s image, which means that God, in all of His great power and might, is also gentle, loving, and kind. He is our father and also our mother, thus encompassing the nature of both male and female. 

The name used in this passage, ha-adam, is a generic term for humankind which encompasses male and female, but as one human being. It is believed that they were connected side by side or even back to back, but the female side of man was not good for him. In another stream of Jewish thought, the story goes that the woman’s name was Lilith, and she did not like her husband. In fact, she hated him and despised him. Lilith is a sort of a forerunner for darkness and evil, but God saw that this was not good. God had to replace Lilith. 

So God brought the animals for Adam to name but saw that they were not a suitable helper. Genesis 2:18-20 says, 

The Lord God said, “It is not good for the man to be alone. I will make a helper suitable for him.” Now the Lord God had formed out of the ground all the wild animals and all the birds in the sky. He brought them to the man to see what he would name them; and whatever the man called each living creature, that was its name. So the man gave names to all the livestock, the birds in the sky and all the wild animals. But for Adam no suitable helper was found.

Genesis 2:21-24 continues, 

So the Lord God caused the man to fall into a deep sleep; and while he was sleeping, He took one of the man’s ribs and then closed up the place with flesh. Then the Lord God made a woman from the rib He had taken out of the man, and He brought her to the man. The man said, “This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called ‘woman’, for she was taken out of man.” That is why a man leaves his father and mother and is united to his wife, and they become one flesh.

The woman was called Eve, but in Hebrew she is called Chavah, which means “to breathe, to live, to give life.” God separated the male and the female into two living beings, and only at marriage the two once again become one.

In the retold story of the creation of man it tells us this: “Then the Lord God formed a man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being” (Genesis 2:7).

The Targum Pseudo-Jonathan contains a tradition that Adam was created with dust taken from the temple mount. 

And the Lord God created man in two formations; and took dust from the place of the house of the sanctuary, and from the four winds of the world, and mixed from all the waters of the world, and created him red, black, and white; and breathed into his nostrils the inspiration of life, and there was in the body of Adam the inspiration of a speaking spirit, unto the illumination of the eyes and the hearing of the ears. (Pseudo-Jonathan on Genesis 2:7)

Again we see one more name for our Creator: the Potter. The Scriptures repeatedly refer to God as the Potter and man as the clay, as we see here in Isaiah 64:8, “But now, O LORD, You are our Father, we are the clay, and You our potter; and all of us are the work of Your hand.”

This title is seen again in Jeremiah 18:3-6

So I went down to the potter’s house, and I saw him working at the wheel. But the pot he was shaping from the clay was marred in his hands; so the potter formed it into another pot, shaping it as seemed best to him. Then the word of the Lord came to me. He said, “Can I not do with you, Israel, as this potter does?” declares the Lord. “Like clay in the hand of the potter, so are you in My hand, Israel.” 

Paul tells the Corinthians this in 2 Corinthians 4:6-7

For God, who said, “Light shall shine out of darkness,” is the One who has shone in our hearts to give the Light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Messiah. But we have this treasure in earthen vessels, so that the surpassing greatness of the power will be of God and not from ourselves.

And this brings us to another thought. If Adam and Eve were the first people created, and they had two children after leaving Eden (Cain and Abel), then why was Cain afraid of people killing him? Could this answer why there are two creation accounts of man?

Genesis 4:13-16 says, 

Cain said to the Lord, “My punishment is more than I can bear. Today You are driving me from the land, and I will be hidden from Your presence; I will be a restless wanderer on the earth, and whoever finds me will kill me.” But the Lord said to him, “Not so; anyone who kills Cain will suffer vengeance seven times over.” Then the Lord put a mark on Cain so that no one who found him would kill him. So Cain went out from the Lord’s presence and lived in the land of Nod, east of Eden.

Who were these people that Cain was afraid of, and where did they come from if there was only Adam and Eve and Cain and Abel? I believe when we look at the first account of the creation of man, we see that they were made in God’s image, which is having an eternal soul; but in the second account, God not only made them in His image, but He breathed into them the breath of life. Even Chavah’s (Eve’s) name means “to breathe.” The breath of life in Hebrew is nishmat hayyim. This is important because we know that breath is also represented by the Holy Spirit—the Spirit of life. Here are just a couple examples.

2 Timothy 3:16-17: “All Scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness..” 

John 20:22, “And when He had said this, He breathed on them and said to them, ‘Receive the Holy Spirit.’”

So, could the first creation account speak of the general populace of people? As Genesis 1:28 tells us, “God blessed them and said to them, ‘Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky and over every living creature that moves on the ground.’” Then the second retold version would be the creation of Adam and Eve, who would be the family line in which the Patriarchs and the Messiah would come. 

We will continue to take a closer look into this, but first:

The Garden of Eden

Genesis 2:8-14 tells us, 

Now the Lord God had planted a garden in the east, in Eden; and there He put the man He had formed. The Lord God made all kinds of trees grow out of the ground—trees that were pleasing to the eye and good for food. In the middle of the garden were the Tree of Life and the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil. A river watering the garden flowed from Eden; from there it was separated into four headwaters. The name of the first is the Pishon; it winds through the entire land of Havilah, where there is gold. (The gold of that land is good; aromatic resin and onyx are also there.) The name of the second river is the Gihon; it winds through the entire land of Cush. The name of the third river is the Tigris; it runs along the east side of Ashur. And the fourth river is the Euphrates.

So was the Garden of Eden in Israel, with the Tree of Life planted in Jerusalem, the center? You may say, “But the Euphrates and Tigris rivers are by Baghdad in Iraq.” We must remember that we cannot look at our modern maps and think that this is how the land was back in the beginning. We also have to take into consideration the Flood and how much the landscape changed after that, so the flow of these rivers also could have changed. But we also must think about this: just how big was the garden of Eden, if every animal and every tree and shrub that was created was there? Besides all of those that exist today, there have been so many kinds of animals, vegetation, and trees that have become extinct, even like the dinosaurs. We know that Israel once owned Lebanon, Jordan, Syria, and Palestine. We will take a closer look as we go on.

We now see God as a gardener, planting a garden with fruit trees by four rivers in the east, a place called Eden. In the middle of the garden were two trees, specific trees which were called out from the other trees—one was the Tree of Life, and the other the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil. 

Let’s take a closer look at these two trees. The Tree of Life was just that—it brought life. 

Proverbs 3:13-18 tells us this: 

Blessed are those who find wisdom, those who gain understanding, for she is more profitable than silver and yields better returns than gold. She is more precious than rubies; nothing you desire can compare with her. Long life is in her right hand; in her left hand are riches and honor. Her ways are pleasant ways, and all her paths are peace. She is a tree of life to those who take hold of her; those who hold her fast will be blessed.

Proverbs 3:19-24 continues, 

The Lord made the earth, using His wisdom. He set the sky in place, using His understanding. With His knowledge, He made springs flow into rivers and the clouds drop rain on the earth. My child, hold on to wisdom and good sense. Don’t let them out of your sight. They will give you life and beauty like a necklace around your neck. Then you will go your way in safety, and you will not get hurt. When you lie down, you won’t be afraid; when you lie down, you will sleep in peace.

We know that wisdom can only be the Word of God/Yeshua, as John 1:14 tells us, “The Word became flesh and made His dwelling among us. We have seen His glory, the glory of the one and only Son, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth.” And the sword of the Spirit is the Word of God, as we read in Ephesians 6:17, “Take the helmet of salvation and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God.” 

So is Proverbs saying that if we find wisdom, we will find the Tree of Life? Yes! Yeshua was in the middle of the garden just like He was in the wilderness, for we saw Him in the rock that followed the Israelites and gave them water, and in the manna that they ate, as we read in 1 Corinthians 10:3-4, “They all ate the same spiritual food and drank the same spiritual drink; for they drank from the spiritual rock that accompanied them, and that rock was Messiah.” 

Again in John 6:31-33,

“Our fathers ate the manna in the wilderness; as it is written, ‘He gave them bread out of heaven to eat.’” Yeshua then said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, it is not Moses who has given you the bread out of heaven, but it is My Father who gives you the true bread out of heaven. For the bread of God is that which comes down out of heaven, and gives life to the world.”

So how about the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil? If the Tree of Life was God’s wisdom that brought life, we see that the Tree of Knowledge brought death to Adam and Eve. In Romans, Paul tells us exactly that about the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil:

What shall we say then? Is the Law sin? May it never be! On the contrary, I would not have come to know sin except through the Law; for I would not have known about coveting if the Law had not said, “You shall not covet.” But sin, taking opportunity through the commandment, produced in me coveting of every kind; for apart from the Law sin is dead. I was once alive apart from the Law; but when the commandment came, sin became alive and I died; and this commandment, which was to result in life, proved to result in death for me; for sin, taking an opportunity through the commandment, deceived me and through it killed me. So then, the Law is holy, and the commandment is holy and righteous and good. (Romans 7:7-12)

Genesis 3:1-6 tells us, 

Now the serpent was more crafty than any of the wild animals the Lord God had made. He said to the woman, “Did God really say, ‘You must not eat from any tree in the garden’?” The woman said to the serpent, “We may eat fruit from the trees in the garden, but God did say, ‘You must not eat fruit from the tree that is in the middle of the garden, and you must not touch it, or you will die.’” “You will not certainly die,” the serpent said to the woman. “For God knows that when you eat from it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil.” When the woman saw that the fruit of the tree was good for food and pleasing to the eye, and also desirable for gaining wisdom, she took some and ate it. She also gave some to her husband, who was with her, and he ate it.

The Fruit of the Garden

So we have one more question: was the fruit that Eve ate really an apple? Let’s consider this. There are 613 commandments in the Torah. It is believed that the pomegranate has exactly 613 seeds. So could the pomegranate, which is also round and red, be the fruit Eve ate, being that it represents the commandments? The pomegranate is a traditional fruit eaten at the Biblical Feast of Weeks, otherwise known as Pentecost. It is the commemoration of the giving of the Torah and the Holy Spirit. The pomegranate was on the priestly vestments, as we read in Exodus 28:31-35,

You shall make the robe of the ephod all of blue. It shall have an opening for the head in the middle of it, with a woven binding around the opening, like the opening in a garment, so that it may not tear. On its hem you shall make pomegranates of blue and purple and scarlet yarns, around its hem, with bells of gold between them, a golden bell and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a pomegranate, around the hem of the robe. And it shall be on Aaron when he ministers, and its sound shall be heard when he goes into the Holy Place before the LORD, and when he comes out, so that he does not die.

Again the connection between pomegranates and death. Also, when you eat pomegranates with your hands it leaves a red blood stain. Isaiah 1:18 says, “Come now, let us reason together, says the LORD: though your sins are like scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they are red like crimson, they shall become like wool.”

Again in Jeremiah 2:22, “’Although you wash yourself with lye and use much soap, the stain of your iniquity is before Me,’ declares the Lord GOD.”

1 John 1:7 tells us (according to the Amplified Version), 

But if we [really] walk in the Light [that is, live each and every day in conformity with the precepts of God], as He Himself is in the Light, we have [true, unbroken] fellowship with one another [He with us, and we with Him], and the blood of Yeshua His Son cleanses us from all sin [by erasing the stain of sin, keeping us cleansed from sin in all its forms and manifestations].

Maybe the apple was the fruit on the Tree of Life, because the apple is eaten at the Biblical Feasts of Trumpets to represent the sweetness of life. 

One thing we do know is that they took fig leaves to cover themselves. Genesis 3:7 says, “Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they realized they were naked; so they sewed fig leaves together and made coverings for themselves.” Now, maybe the fig leaves were within arm’s length, or maybe they had just eaten those figs, but we see that after mentioning the Tree of Life and the Tree of Knowledge, now we see here fig leaves. This is very significant because figs are mentioned many times in the Bible. So what does this all represent? 

The Story of the Fig Tree

We see that after the reign of King Solomon the kingdom was divided into two—the northern ten tribes and the southern two tribes, as 1 Kings 12:20-24 tells us,

And when all Israel heard that Jeroboam had returned, they sent and called him to the assembly and made him king over all Israel. There was none that followed the house of David but the tribe of Judah only. When Rehoboam came to Jerusalem, he assembled all the house of Judah and the tribe of Benjamin, 180,000 chosen warriors, to fight against the house of Israel, to restore the kingdom to Rehoboam the son of Solomon. But the word of God came to Shemaiah the man of God: “Say to Rehoboam the son of Solomon, king of Judah, and to all the house of Judah and Benjamin, and to the rest of the people, ‘Thus says the Lord, You shall not go up or fight against your relatives the people of Israel. Every man return to his home, for this thing is from Me.’” So they listened to the word of the Lord and went home again, according to the word of the Lord.

The house of Israel was referred to as an olive tree, and the house of Judah was referred to as a fig tree. We read in Scripture that both houses transgressed God laws and both fell into pagan practices. Jeremiah 24:1-10 gives us a hidden message:

After Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon had taken into exile from Jerusalem Jeconiah the son of Jehoiakim, king of Judah, together with the officials of Judah, the craftsmen, and the metal workers, and had brought them to Babylon, the Lord showed me this vision: behold, two baskets of figs placed before the temple of the Lord. One basket had very good figs, like first-ripe figs, but the other basket had very bad figs, so bad that they could not be eaten. And the Lord said to me, “What do you see, Jeremiah?” I said, “Figs, the good figs very good, and the bad figs very bad, so bad that they cannot be eaten.” Then the word of the Lord came to me: “Thus says the Lord, the God of Israel: Like these good figs, so I will regard as good the exiles from Judah, whom I have sent away from this place to the land of the Chaldeans. I will set my eyes on them for good, and I will bring them back to this land. I will build them up, and not tear them down; I will plant them, and not pluck them up. I will give them a heart to know that I am the Lord, and they shall be My people and I will be their God, for they shall return to Me with their whole heart. But thus says the Lord: Like the bad figs that are so bad they cannot be eaten, so will I treat Zedekiah the king of Judah, his officials, the remnant of Jerusalem who remain in this land, and those who dwell in the land of Egypt. I will make them a horror to all the kingdoms of the earth, to be a reproach, a byword, a taunt, and a curse in all the places where I shall drive them. And I will send sword, famine, and pestilence upon them, until they shall be utterly destroyed from the land that I gave to them and their fathers.”

Did you catch the message? One basket was good and the other basket was bad, or should we say, evil. The baskets represent the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil. 

In Matthew 21:18-20 Yeshua also has an encounter with a fig tree. 

In the morning, as He was returning to the city, He became hungry. And seeing a fig tree by the wayside, He went to it and found nothing on it but only leaves. And He said to it, “May no fruit ever come from you again!” And the fig tree withered at once. When the disciples saw it, they marveled, saying, “How did the fig tree wither at once?”

So what is the meaning of all of this? The fig tree represented the tribe of Judah. The tree was full of leaves—you would think that was good. It showed that the tree was alive and healthy, which the tribe of Judah was. But the tree had no fruit on it (figs), so Yeshua cursed it because no matter how healthy the tree was, it wasn’t any good without fruit. It shows the lack of spirituality of the tribe of Judah.

John 15:1-4, 6 tells us, 

I am the true vine, and My Father is the gardener. He cuts off every branch in Me that bears no fruit, while every branch that does bear fruit He prunes so that it will be even more fruitful. You are already clean because of the word I have spoken to you. Remain in Me, as I also remain in you. No branch can bear fruit by itself; it must remain in the vine. Neither can you bear fruit unless you remain in Me. . . . If you do not remain in Me, you are like a branch that is thrown away and withers; such branches are picked up, thrown into the fire and burned.

Matthew 21:43-44 continues, “Therefore I tell you, the Kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a people producing its fruits. And the one who falls on this stone will be broken to pieces; and when it falls on anyone, it will crush him.”

Of course, we know that in 70 AD the curse of the fig tree quickly came, and the tree that was cursed withered very quickly, for John the Baptist said that the axe was already laid to the root: “Even now the ax is laid to the root of the trees. Every tree therefore that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire” (Matthew 3:10). Other parables regarding the fig tree are in Luke 13:6-9 and Matthew 24:32-34

So we see that eating from the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil had quite the impact throughout the history of mankind, but God did not leave us in such a desperate state, for He tells the serpent in Genesis 3:14-15

Because you have done this, cursed are you above all livestock and above all beasts of the field; on your belly you shall go, and dust you shall eat all the days of your life. I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and her offspring; he shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise his heel.

And as we all know, the Savior, the Messiah Yeshua, came—and how did He die? On a tree! 

One more point. Genesis 3:21 tells us, “And the Lord God made for Adam and for his wife garments of skins and clothed them.” For God to make garments of skins implies that God sacrificed sheep to do that, symbolizing once again that Yeshua the Lamb of God would be sacrificed. How do we know that it was sheep? Because as we read in Revelation 13:8, the Lamb was slain before the foundation of the world. 

Where Is the Garden of Eden?

So let’s continue after that bite of fruit. If the Lamb was slain before the foundation of the world, then could it be true what the Jewish scholars believe: that the Garden of Eden was created before the foundation of the world? Even though many other scholars feel that the Garden of Eden was mythical and did not exist, Scripture tells us something different. So where was the Garden of Eden? Could it have been in the heavenlies, as Revelation 2:7 tells us: “Whoever has ears, let them hear what the Spirit says to the churches. To the one who is victorious, I will give the right to eat from the Tree of Life, which is in the paradise of God.”

And yet, Yeshua Himself made reference to Eden in Luke 23:43. “Yeshua answered him, ‘Truly I tell you, today you will be with Me in paradise.’” Christians always make reference to the fact that we are going to spend eternity in heaven, so are they saying that Eden is in heaven? We say, find the Tree of Life and you will find Eden.

But to better understand the Garden of Eden, we must go to the Scriptures to look at the end of time to find the beginning. Here are a few clues on how it was at the time of creation.

Isaiah 11:6-9 tells us, 

And the wolf will dwell with the lamb, and the leopard will lie down with the young goat, and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little boy will lead them. Also the cow and the bear will graze, their young will lie down together, and the lion will eat straw like the ox. The nursing child will play by the hole of the cobra, and the weaned child will put his hand on the viper’s den. They will not hurt or destroy in all My holy mountain, For the earth will be full of the knowledge of the Lord as the waters cover the sea.

The Garden of Eden will be as peaceful and bountiful as it was in the day that Adam walked with these same animals. In Judaism the process by which the world will one day be restored to Edenic paradise is called tikkun olam, “fixing/repairing the world.”

Regarding the bounty of the restored Garden of Eden, the second-century church father Irenaeus preserves a tradition from the earlier church father Papias. Papias collected sayings which he claimed originated with the apostles. Unfortunately, Papias’ original works are lost, and all that remains of these sayings is what has been preserved by other authors who quoted him. One of these quotations is particularly interesting, touching on this topic of the Messianic Age. Irenaeus recounts one of the sayings that Papias attributed to Yeshua: 

The days will come in which vines shall grow, having each ten thousand branches, and in each branch ten thousand twigs, and in each true twig ten thousand shoots, and in every one of the shoots ten thousand clusters, and on every one of the clusters ten thousand grapes, and every grape when pressed will give five-and-twenty metretes [approximately 264 gallons] of wine. And when any one of the saints shall lay hold of a cluster, another shall cry out, “I am a better cluster, take me; bless the Lord through me!” In like manner, He said that a grain of wheat would produce ten thousand ears, and that every ear would have ten thousand grains, and every grain would yield ten pounds of clear, pure, fine flour; and that apples, and seeds, and grass would produce in similar proportions; and that all animals, feeding then only on the productions of the earth, would become peaceable and harmonious, and be in perfect subjection to man.

The quotation of Papias continues with an objection. Judas does not understand how such prosperity could be possible: 

And Judas the traitor, not believing, and asking, “How shall such growths be accomplished by the Lord?” the Lord said, “They shall see who shall come to them.” (Against Heresies, Book V, 33:4)

The reason that this is such an interesting saying is because it has parallels in early Jewish tradition. You may wonder, why does this saying use the specific figure ten thousand branches per vine? The reason is it is based on a Jewish style of interpretation which heavily relies on wordplay. We have seen a couple of examples of this interpretive style in earlier quotations from rabbinic literature. 

Here is how it works in the case of this saying attributed to Yeshua. Genesis 27:28 is part of a passage where Isaac is blessing his son Jacob. More than a blessing, it is a prophecy of the future. Isaac says, “Now may God give you of the dew of heaven, and of the fatness of the earth, and an abundance of grain and new wine.” The Hebrew word translated “abundance” in this verse is very similar to the word for “ten-thousandfold.” The idea of the talking grapes is likewise based on a wordplay in Genesis 49:12. Similar to the other verse, this one is part of Jacob’s blessing of his son Judah—the royal, Messianic line. This verse contains the phrase, “His eyes are darker than wine.” If you split one of the Hebrew words (chaklili) into three (chak li li), it could then be translated, “Taste me! My springs are richer than wine” (this being the grapes speaking). These two creative midrashic interpretations are brought together, connected by the prophetic, Messianic nature of their contexts, in the saying attributed to Yeshua by Papias.

This saying, and especially the interaction with the skeptical Judas, is very similar to a saying preserved in the Talmud. It is recorded that Rabbi Gamliel was teaching about the miraculous abundance and fertility that will take place in the Messianic Era: 

Rabban Gamliel sat and interpreted a verse homiletically: In the future, in the World-to-Come, trees will produce fruits every day, as it is stated: “And it shall bring forth branches and bear fruit” (Ezekiel 17:23); just as a branch grows every day, so too, fruit will be produced every day. A certain student scoffed at him and said: Isn’t it written: There is nothing new under the sun? He said to him: Come and I will show you an example of this in this world. He went outside and showed him a caper bush, part of which is edible during each season of the year. (b. Shabbat 30b)

Additionally, in the book of 1 Enoch there is a passage similar to the teaching ascribed to Yeshua by Papias. Speaking of the Messianic Kingdom and its Edenic qualities, it says:

And then shall the whole earth be tilled in righteousness, and shall all be planted with trees and be full of blessing. And all desirable trees shall be planted on it, and they shall plant vines on it: and the vine which they plant thereon shall yield wine in abundance, and as for all the seed which is sown thereon each measure (of it) shall bear a thousand, and each measure of olives shall yield ten presses of oil. (1 Enoch 10:18-20)

Again, there is a similar passage in 2 Baruch 29:4-8, which talks about the miraculous abundance of the Kingdom. Interestingly, within this fascinating passage we find the same teaching about the abundance of the vine, probably based on the same midrashic interpretation of Genesis 27. Also note the mention of dew, which we talked about earlier: 

And Behemoth shall be revealed from his place and Leviathan shall ascend from the sea, those two great monsters which I created on the fifth day of creation, and shall have kept until that time: and then they shall be for food for all that are left. The earth also shall yield its fruit ten thousandfold and on each vine there shall be a thousand branches, and each branch shall produce a thousand clusters, and each cluster produce a thousand grapes, and each grape produce a cor of wine. And those who have hungered shall rejoice: moreover, also, they shall behold marvels every day. For winds shall go forth from before Me to bring every morning the fragrance of aromatic fruits, and at the close of the day clouds distilling the dew of health. And it shall come to pass at that self-same time that the treasury of manna shall again descend from on high, and they will eat of it in those years, because these are they who have come to the consummation of time.

These were not just extravagant musings or fantasies. They are based on the words of the prophets who spoke of a future era of abundance in the Messianic Age.

Amos 9:13-14 speaks of the agricultural abundance that there will be in the Kingdom:

“Behold, the days are coming,” declares the LORD, “when the plowman shall overtake the reaper and the treader of grapes him who sows the seed; the mountains shall drip sweet wine, and all the hills shall flow with it. I will restore the fortunes of My people Israel, and they shall rebuild the ruined cities and inhabit them; they shall plant vineyards and drink their wine, and they shall make gardens and eat their fruit.”

Likewise, Hosea 2:21-23 speaks of this same thing: 

“And in that day I will answer,” declares the Lord, “I will answer the heavens, and they shall answer the earth, and the earth shall answer the grain, the wine, and the oil, and they shall answer Jezreel, and I will sow her for Myself in the land. And I will have mercy on No Mercy, and I will say to Not My People, ‘You are My people’; and he shall say, ‘You are my God.’”

Jeremiah 31:5 says, “Again you shall plant vineyards on the mountains of Samaria; the planters shall plant and shall enjoy the fruit.”

Ezekiel 28:25-26 says, 

Thus says the Lord God: “When I gather the house of Israel from the peoples among whom they are scattered, and manifest My holiness in them in the sight of the nations, then they shall dwell in their own land that I gave to My servant Jacob. And they shall dwell securely in it, and they shall build houses and plant vineyards. They shall dwell securely, when I execute judgments upon all their neighbors who have treated them with contempt. Then they will know that I am the Lord their God.”

Once again in Ezekiel 34:26-27

And I will make them and the places all around My hill a blessing, and I will send down the showers in their season; they shall be showers of blessing. And the trees of the field shall yield their fruit, and the earth shall yield its increase, and they shall be secure in their land. And they shall know that I am the Lord, when I break the bars of their yoke, and deliver them from the hand of those who enslaved them.

One final verse from the prophets is Isaiah 25:6, “On this mountain the Lord of hosts will make for all peoples a feast of rich food, a feast of well-aged wine, of rich food full of marrow, of aged wine well refined.”

Yeshua also makes reference to the great feast in the Kingdom, which is a result of this miraculous abundance: “And people will come from east and west, and from north and south, and recline at table in the Kingdom of God” (Luke 13:29). In another place He says, “I tell you, many will come from east and west and recline at table with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the Kingdom of Heaven” (Matthew 8:11). This theme also shows up in the parables about the Kingdom, such as in Matthew 22, “The Kingdom of Heaven may be compared to a king who gave a wedding feast for his son” (verse 2), and Matthew 25, “And while they were going away to make the purchase, the bridegroom came, and those who were ready went in with him to the wedding feast” (verse 10).

What we must understand is that when God created time, or should I say history, He created it in seven parts. The first part was pre-creation, when the Scriptures tell us, “In the beginning…” The second part was creation: “God created.” The third part was from Eden to pre-flood. The fourth part was from the flood to pre-Yeshua. The fifth part was post-crucifixion. The sixth part is the day of the Lord (called the end times), and the seventh part is the restored Eden, also called “The Age to Come,” which consists of the 1,000 year reign of Yeshua. These seven parts, or should we say “days,” coincide with the seven days of creation. 

Some commentators have understood that the six days of creation followed by the sabbath is a timeline of history. Psalm 90:4 says, “A day in Your sight is like a thousand years.” By this interpretation, history will be consummated after the earth has completed 6,000 years. The seventh day Sabbath in this sense foreshadows and represents the thousand-year millennial reign of Messiah. The early Christian writing Epistle of Barnabas passes on this tradition: 

Attend, my children, to the meaning of this expression, “He finished in six days.” This implies that the Lord will finish all things in six thousand years, for a day is with Him a thousand years. And He Himself testifies, saying, “Behold, today will be as a thousand years.” Therefore, my children, in six days, that is, in six thousand years, all things will be finished. “And He rested on the seventh day.” This means: when His Son, coming [again], shall destroy the time of the wicked man, and judge the ungodly, and change the sun, and the moon, and the stars, then shall He truly rest on the seventh day. (Epistle of Barnabas 15:4-5)

So let’s look at this seventh day.

The Seventh Day: The Restored Eden

The reign of Yeshua is not in heaven, but right here on earth. Revelation 20:4-6 tells us,

Then I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was given to them. And I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded because of their testimony of Yeshua and because of the Word of God, and those who had not worshiped the beast or his image, and had not received the mark on their forehead and on their hand; and they came to life and reigned with Messiah for a thousand years. The rest of the dead did not come to life until the thousand years were completed. This is the first resurrection. Blessed and holy is the one who has a part in the first resurrection; over these the second death has no power, but they will be priests of God and of Messiah and will reign with Him for a thousand years.

God promised King David that a descendant of his would reign on his throne forever, as 2 Samuel 7:16 tells us, “Your house and your kingdom will endure forever before Me; your throne will be established forever.'”

In 1 Kings 9:5, God passes the promise on to Solomon: “I will establish your royal throne over Israel forever, as I promised David your father when I said, ‘You shall never fail to have a successor on the throne of Israel.’”

Revelation 19:6-9 tells us of the great marriage feast that will take place for the redeemed in the restored Eden.

Then I heard what seemed to be the voice of a great multitude, like the roar of many waters and like the sound of mighty peals of thunder, crying out, “Hallelujah! For the Lord our God the Almighty reigns. Let us rejoice and exult and give Him the glory, for the marriage of the Lamb has come and His Bride has made herself ready; it was granted her to clothe herself with fine linen, bright and pure”— for the fine linen is the righteous deeds of the saints. And the angel said to me, “Write this: Blessed are those who are invited to the marriage supper of the Lamb.” And he said to me, “These are the true words of God.”

So we see in Scripture what this will look like. Isaiah 2:2-3 says this: 

In the last days the mountain of the Lord’s temple will be established as the highest of the mountains; it will be exalted above the hills, and all nations will stream to it. Many peoples will come and say, “Come, let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, to the temple of the God of Jacob. He will teach us His ways, so that we may walk in His paths.” The law will go out from Zion, the Word of the Lord from Jerusalem.

Isaiah 35:8-10 tells us, 

And a highway will be there; it will be called the Way of Holiness; it will be for those who walk on that Way. The unclean will not journey on it; wicked fools will not go about on it. No lion will be there, nor any ravenous beast; they will not be found there. But only the redeemed will walk there, and those the Lord has rescued will return. They will enter Zion with singing; everlasting joy will crown their heads. Gladness and joy will overtake them, and sorrow and sighing will flee away.

Jeremiah 31:12-14 tells us, 

“They will come and shout for joy on the height of Zion, and they will be radiant over the bounty of the Lord—over the grain and the new wine and the oil, and over the young of the flock and the herd; and their life will be like a watered garden, and they will never languish again. Then the virgin will rejoice in the dance, and the young men and the old, together, for I will turn their mourning into joy and will comfort them and give them joy for their sorrow. I will fill the soul of the priests with abundance, and My people will be satisfied with My goodness,” declares the Lord.

Revelation 22:1-2, says this: “Then he showed me a river of the water of life, clear as crystal, coming from the throne of God and of the Lamb, in the middle of its street.” Just like in Eden, we see again a river flowing through it. This river is also mentioned in Zechariah 14:8, “And in that day living waters will flow out of Jerusalem, half of them toward the eastern sea and the other half toward the western sea; it will be in summer as well as in winter.” We see something similar in Ezekiel 47:12

By the river on its bank, on one side and on the other, will grow all kinds of trees for food. Their leaves will not wither and their fruit will not fail. They will bear every month because their water flows from the sanctuary, and their fruit will be for food and their leaves for healing.

Revelation 22:2-3 continues, referring to the trees by the river: 

On either side of the river was the Tree of Life, bearing twelve kinds of fruit, yielding its fruit every month; and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations. There will no longer be any curse; and the throne of God and of the Lamb will be in it, and His bond-servants will serve Him;

As we see, there will be no Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil in the restored Jerusalem because man has been redeemed and the stain has been washed away. Now the Law is within us, as Hebrews 8:10 tells us, 

“For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days,” declares the Lord: “I will put My laws into their minds and write them on their hearts, and I will be their God, and they shall be My people.”

But we will come and eat of God’s Word from the Tree of Life: “And they shall not teach everyone his fellow citizen, and everyone his brother, saying, ‘Know the Lord,’ for all will know Me, from the least to the greatest of them” (Hebrews 8:11).

Micah 4:2 also tells us,

Many nations will come and say, “Come and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord and to the house of the God of Jacob, that He may teach us about His ways and that we may walk in His paths.” For from Zion will go forth the law, even the Word of the Lord from Jerusalem.

Isaiah 2:3 is very similar: 

Many peoples will come and say, “Come, let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, to the temple of the God of Jacob. He will teach us His ways, so that we may walk in His paths.” The law will go out from Zion, the Word of the LORD from Jerusalem.

Zechariah 14:16-21 says, 

Then the survivors from all the nations that have attacked Jerusalem will go up year after year to worship the King, the Lord Almighty, and to celebrate the Festival of Tabernacles. If any of the peoples of the earth do not go up to Jerusalem to worship the King, the Lord Almighty, they will have no rain. If the Egyptian people do not go up and take part, they will have no rain. The Lord will bring on them the plague He inflicts on the nations that do not go up to celebrate the Festival of Tabernacles. This will be the punishment of Egypt and the punishment of all the nations that do not go up to celebrate the Festival of Tabernacles. On that day, “Holy to the Lord” will be inscribed on the bells of the horses, and the cooking pots in the Lord’s house will be like the sacred bowls in front of the altar. Every pot in Jerusalem and Judah will be holy to the Lord Almighty, and all who come to sacrifice will take some of the pots and cook in them. And on that day there will no longer be a Canaanite in the house of the Lord Almighty.

Isaiah 66:18-23 also says, 

“For I know their works and their thoughts; the time is coming to gather all nations and tongues. And they shall come and see My glory. I will set a sign among them and will send survivors from them to the nations: Tarshish, Put, Lud, Meshech, Tubal and Javan, to the distant coastlands that have neither heard My fame nor seen My glory. And they will declare My glory among the nations. Then they shall bring all your brethren from all the nations as a grain offering to the Lord, on horses, in chariots, in litters, on mules and on camels, to My holy mountain Jerusalem,” says the Lord, “just as the sons of Israel bring their grain offering in a clean vessel to the house of the Lord. I will also take some of them for priests and for Levites,” says the Lord. “For just as the new heavens and the new earth which I make will endure before Me,” declares the Lord, “So your offspring and your name will endure. And it shall be from new moon to new moon and from sabbath to sabbath, all mankind will come to bow down before Me,” says the Lord.

As you see, the redeemed will be keeping the Feast of Tabernacles each year, because that is what this feast represents: dwelling with God for eternity. So this would be the fulfillment of this feast, along with the keeping of the New Moon celebration which brings in the new Biblical month. We shall also keep the seventh day Sabbath.

Hebrews 4:1-13 tells us this about the future Sabbath rest: 

Therefore, since the promise of entering His rest still stands, let us be careful that none of you be found to have fallen short of it. For we also have had the good news proclaimed to us, just as they did; but the message they heard was of no value to them, because they did not share the faith of those who obeyed. Now we who have believed enter that rest, just as God has said, “So I declared on oath in My anger, ‘They shall never enter My rest.’” And yet His works have been finished since the creation of the world. For somewhere He has spoken about the seventh day in these words: “On the seventh day God rested from all His works.” And again in the passage above He says, “They shall never enter My rest.” Therefore since it still remains for some to enter that rest, and since those who formerly had the good news proclaimed to them did not go in because of their disobedience, God again set a certain day, calling it “Today.” This He did when a long time later He spoke through David, as in the passage already quoted: “Today, if you hear His voice, do not harden your hearts.” For if Joshua had given them rest, God would not have spoken later about another day. There remains, then, a Sabbath-rest for the people of God; for anyone who enters God’s rest also rests from their works, just as God did from His. Let us, therefore, make every effort to enter that rest, so that no one will perish by following their example of disobedience. For the Word of God is alive and active. Sharper than any double-edged sword, it penetrates even to dividing soul and spirit, joints and marrow; it judges the thoughts and attitudes of the heart. Nothing in all creation is hidden from God’s sight. Everything is uncovered and laid bare before the eyes of Him to whom we must give account.

1 Corinthians 13:8-10 tells us, 

Love never fails; but if there are gifts of prophecy, they will be done away; if there are tongues, they will cease; if there is knowledge, it will be done away. For we know in part and we prophesy in part; but when the perfect comes, the partial will be done away.

Many people feel that the day of perfection has arrived with the coming of Yeshua; but it is not His first coming that brought perfection, but His second coming that will bring perfection. With the restoring of Eden will come the restoring of Jerusalem.

And so Jerusalem shall become new, as Isaiah 54:11-13 tells us, 

O afflicted one, storm-tossed, and not comforted, behold, I will set your stones in antimony, and your foundations I will lay in sapphires. Moreover, I will make your battlements of rubies, and your gates of crystal, and your entire wall of precious stones. All your sons will be taught of the Lord; and the well-being of your sons will be great.

Revelation 21:5-7 says this, 

And He who sits on the throne said, “Behold, I am making all things new.” And He said, “Write, for these words are faithful and true.” Then He said to me, “It is done. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end. I will give to the one who thirsts from the spring of the water of life without cost. He who overcomes will inherit these things, and I will be his God and he will be My son.”

After the Age to Come, we will then enter into the “Hereafter.” The Hereafter happens after the thousand year reign of Messiah, also known as the restored Eden. Satan will once again be set free, and he will be cast into hell forever, and the second judgment takes place, and once again we see God creating. 

Isaiah 60:19-22 tells us, 

No longer will you have the sun for light by day, nor for brightness will the moon give you light; but you will have the Lord for an everlasting light, and your God for your glory. Your sun will no longer set, nor will your moon wane; for you will have the Lord for an everlasting light, and the days of your mourning will be over. Then all your people will be righteous; they will possess the land forever, the branch of My planting, the work of My hands, that I may be glorified. The smallest one will become a clan, and the least one a mighty nation. I, the Lord, will hasten it in its time.

Who is “the branch of my planting”? Isaiah 61:3 tells us this about God’s planting: “So they will be called oaks of righteousness, the planting of the LORD, that He may be glorified.”

Revelation 21:1 tells us, “Then I saw ‘a new heaven and a new earth,’ for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and there was no longer any sea.”

As Revelation 21:9b tells us, “Come, I will show you the bride, the wife of the Lamb.” Now once again we see here the bride in the age to come, but here she is the New Jerusalem. It continues in Revelation 21:10-27

And he carried me away in the Spirit to a great and high mountain, and showed me the holy city, Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, having the glory of God. Her brilliance was like a very costly stone, as a stone of crystal-clear jasper. It had a great and high wall, with twelve gates, and at the gates twelve angels; and names were written on them, which are the names of the twelve tribes of the sons of Israel. There were three gates on the east and three gates on the north and three gates on the south and three gates on the west. And the wall of the city had twelve foundation stones, and on them were the twelve names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb. The one who spoke with me had a gold measuring rod to measure the city, and its gates and its wall. The city is laid out as a square, and its length is as great as the width; and he measured the city with the rod, fifteen hundred miles; its length and width and height are equal. And he measured its wall, seventy-two yards, according to human measurements, which are also angelic measurements. The material of the wall was jasper; and the city was pure gold, like clear glass. The foundation stones of the city wall were adorned with every kind of precious stone. The first foundation stone was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, chalcedony; the fourth, emerald; the fifth, sardonyx; the sixth, sardius; the seventh, chrysolite; the eighth, beryl; the ninth, topaz; the tenth, chrysoprase; the eleventh, jacinth; the twelfth, amethyst. And the twelve gates were twelve pearls; each one of the gates was a single pearl. And the street of the city was pure gold, like transparent glass. I saw no temple in it, for the Lord God the Almighty and the Lamb are its temple. And the city has no need of the sun or of the moon to shine on it, for the glory of God has illuminated it, and its lamp is the Lamb. The nations will walk by its light, and the kings of the earth will bring their glory into it. In the daytime (for there will be no night there) its gates will never be closed; and they will bring the glory and the honor of the nations into it; and nothing unclean, and no one who practices abomination and lying, shall ever come into it, but only those whose names are written in the Lamb’s Book of Life.

The foundation stones to the New Jerusalem are like the ephod that was worn by the High Priest, as shown in Exodus 28:17-21

You shall mount on it four rows of stones; the first row shall be a row of ruby, topaz and emerald; and the second row a turquoise, a sapphire and a diamond; and the third row a jacinth, an agate and an amethyst; and the fourth row a beryl and an onyx and a jasper; they shall be set in gold filigree. The stones shall be according to the names of the sons of Israel: twelve, according to their names; they shall be like the engravings of a seal, each according to his name for the twelve tribes.

John 14:1-3 tells us about this New Jerusalem

Do not let your heart be troubled; believe in God, believe also in Me. In My Father’s house are many dwelling places; if it were not so, I would have told you; for I go to prepare a place for you. If I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and receive you to Myself, that where I am, there you may be also.

So, are we the New Jerusalem?

Ephesians 2:19-22 tells us, 

So then you are no longer strangers and aliens, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and are of God’s household, having been built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Messiah Yeshua Himself being the cornerstone, in whom the whole building, being fitted together, is growing into a holy temple in the Lord, in whom you also are being built together into a dwelling of God in the Spirit.

Again in 1 Peter 2:4-6

And coming to Him as to a living stone which has been rejected by men, but is choice and precious in the sight of God, you also, as living stones, are being built up as a spiritual house for a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Messiah Yeshua. For this is contained in Scripture: “Behold, I lay in Zion a choice stone, a precious cornerstone, and he who believes in Him will not be disappointed.”

1 Corinthians 6:19-20 says, “Do you not know that your bodies are temples of the Holy Spirit, who is in you, whom you have received from God? You are not your own; you were bought at a price. Therefore honor God with your bodies.”

We see from Scripture that there will be no sun or moon, for the glory of the Lord will illuminate it, and there will also be no sea. This means that the new Earth will not need to rotate around the sun, which means there will be no day or night, there will be no seasons, there will be no time. So you can basically say the Earth will not be round, because it will not rotate or spin around the sun or any other planet. There will be no sea, no tide, no weather, no atmosphere, no oxygen. 

Hebrews 1:10-12 tells us, 

You, Lord, in the beginning laid the foundation of the earth, and the heavens are the works of Your hands. They will perish, but You remain; and they all will become old like a garment, and like a mantle You will roll them up; like a garment they will also be changed. But You are the same, and Your years will not come to an end.

Philippians 3:20-21 tells us that we are being transformed, 

For our citizenship is in heaven, from which also we eagerly wait for a Savior, the Lord Messiah Yeshua; who will transform the body of our humble state into conformity with the body of His glory, by the exertion of the power that He has even to subject all things to Himself.

We will continue to look at our transformation as we now take a look at Adam, because he is a big part of the garden of Eden.


So, who was Adam? I know that you will say, “He was the first man to be created.” Yes, but who was Adam? Adam was not just a mere man. We saw first of all that Adam was given the right to name all of the animals, which gave him the authority over all the animals. He was given the right to eat all of the fruit from the trees except the Tree of Knowledge, but He could eat from the Tree of Life. He was the keeper of the garden. He would walk with God in the garden. Adam was one more thing: he was king over God’s creation. The land, the water, the vegetation, the birds, the trees—he was ruler over it all. 

Adam and Eve were created as eternal beings. The glory of God was around them. The rabbis said that prior to their sin, Adam and Eve were dressed in heavenly garments of light and had a kind of protective skin around them made of the same material our fingernails are made out of. In Pirkei de Rabbi Eliezer 14:3 we read, 

What was the dress of the first man? A skin of nail, and a cloud of glory covered him. When he ate of the fruits of the tree, the nail-skin was stripped off him, and the cloud of glory departed from him, and he saw himself naked.

The same thing is said in Bereshit Rabbah 20:12, where different rabbis give different interpretations about what the garments were—but instead of before the fall, they offer these comments about Genesis 3:21, where God creates garments for Adam and Eve after their sin:

“And the Lord God made for the human and for his woman clothing of skin, and dressed them.” In the Torah of Rabbi Meir we find written “clothing of light”—these garments of the primordial human resembled a torch: narrow at the top and wide at the bottom. Rabbi Yitzchak the Greater says: This clothing was like fingernails, effulgent like pearl. Rabbi Yitzchak says: Like garments of the finest linen, like the kind that comes from Beit Sh’an. “Garments of skin” – because they clung to the skin. 

The idea of humans radiating light like this is also found in other rabbinic stories. For example, Devarim Rabbah 11 tells a story about when the angel of death, Samael, was sent to retrieve the soul of Moses. Note the description of Moses’ appearance: 

When he saw that Moses was sitting and inscribing the Ineffable Name, and that the splendor of his appearance was equal to that of the sun, and that he resembled one of the angels of the Lord of Hosts, Samael began to fear Moses.

Heavenly beings or humans who are in close contact with God having an appearance of light is found in various places in Scripture. Exodus 34:34-35 says, 

Whenever Moses went in before the Lord to speak with Him, he would remove the veil, until he came out. And when he came out and told the people of Israel what he was commanded, the people of Israel would see the face of Moses, that the skin of Moses’ face was shining.

When Yeshua was transfigured, “His face shone like the sun, and His garments became as white as light” (Matthew 17:2). Those who partake in the resurrection will also shine when we receive our glorified bodies, perhaps in the same way that Adam and Eve did. Daniel 12:2-3 says,

And many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt. And those who are wise shall shine like the brightness of the sky above; and those who turn many to righteousness, like the stars forever and ever.

Yeshua likewise says that the righteous will have shining, glorious bodies in the resurrection: “Then the righteous will shine like the sun in the Kingdom of their Father” (Matthew 13:43).

It was this light of glory that covered Adam and Eve so that they did not know that they were naked until they sinned and the glory of God left them. They were now mortal beings without the glory, and now their flesh was subject to death. The crown was now lost to the evil one. Scripture tells us in Psalm 8:5, “Yet You have made him a little lower than God, and You crown him with glory and majesty!”

When Adam sinned, Satan became the ruler of this world. 

John 14:30 says this, “I will not speak much more with you, for the ruler of the world is coming, and he has nothing in Me.”

2 Corinthians 4:4 tells us, 

Satan, who is the god of this world, has blinded the minds of those who don’t believe. They are unable to see the glorious light of the Good News. They don’t understand this message about the glory of Messiah, who is the exact likeness of God.

The Second Adam

After the first Adam sinned, God had to redeem man by sending the second Adam, that is, the Messiah. The idea of a heavenly Adam was not necessarily an innovation of the followers of Yeshua. The Hebrew phrase Adam Kadmon means “primordial man.” We recognize that Adam is the name of the first person that God created, and adam is the Hebrew word for “man” in general. Adam’s physical creation is described in the book of Genesis, as we know. However, the Rabbis questioned how it could be that a physical man was created in the image of an incorporeal God. The writings of the Zohar suggest that the physical man was created from the blueprint of a primordial, spiritual man, and it was this heavenly Adam who was the image of God; thus mankind is the image of God insofar as he was the imprint of this original heavenly Adam. So according to this Jewish interpretation, Adam was the first corporeal man, but he was preceded by a blueprint or ideal, spiritual man, Adam Kadmon, and created in this man’s image. 

This idea took varying forms in different schools of thought, and different Jewish mystics applied more or less of God’s attributes to Adam Kadmon as the image of God. These ideas didn’t fully develop until the Middle Ages, but some scholars believe that they existed in some form during the first century. The Hellenistic Jew Philo seems to speak of the same idea in his discussion of the creation of man. He contrasts Genesis 1 and 2. According to Philo’s allegorical method of interpretation, in Genesis 1 we see a description of the heavenly man, who is born or begotten in the image of God rather than created. This heavenly man is neither male nor female, but is the perfect representation of the Logos, the Word. We know that Yeshua as the Divine Word was present from the very beginning rather than begotten on the sixth day, but Philo’s interpretation is still interesting for its parallels. He then says that in Genesis 2 we see the earthly man who is constructed out of clay. Other scholars point to possible glimpses of this theology of a heavenly Adam in early rabbinic literature, such as Bereshit Rabbah 8:1, which says that when Adam was created, he was so large that he filled the entire world. 

Some scholars believe that the New Testament passages that compare Yeshua and Adam might have some common features with this school of thought, with the understanding that Yeshua was the Word even before creation, through whom all things came into being.

Colossians:1:15-20 tells us this about the second Adam, 

The Son is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation. For in Him all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; all things have been created through Him and for Him. He is before all things, and in Him all things hold together. And He is the head of the body, the church; He is the beginning and the firstborn from among the dead, so that in everything He might have the supremacy. For God was pleased to have all His fullness dwell in Him, and through Him to reconcile to Himself all things, whether things on earth or things in heaven, by making peace through His blood, shed on the cross.

Philippians 2:6-11 also says, 

Who, being in very nature God, did not consider equality with God something to be used to His own advantage; rather, He made Himself nothing by taking the very nature of a servant, being made in human likeness. And being found in appearance as a man, He humbled Himself by becoming obedient to death—even death on a cross! Therefore God exalted Him to the highest place and gave Him the name that is above every name, that at the name of Yeshua every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue acknowledge that Messiah Yeshua is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

Hebrews 2:14-17 tells us, 

Therefore, since the children share in flesh and blood, He Himself likewise also partook of the same, that through death He might render powerless him who had the power of death, that is, the devil, and might free those who through fear of death were subject to slavery all their lives. For assuredly He does not give help to angels, but He gives help to the descendant of Abraham. Therefore, He had to be made like His brethren in all things, so that He might become a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people.

Like the first Adam, He will be the ruler of creation as Hebrews 2:5-9 tells us,

For He did not subject to angels the world to come, concerning which we are speaking. But one has testified somewhere, saying, “What is man, that You remember him? Or the son of man, that You are concerned about him? You have made him for a little while lower than the angels; You have crowned him with glory and honor, and have appointed him over the works of Your hands; You have put all things in subjection under his feet.” For in subjecting all things to Him, He left nothing that is not subject to Him. But now we do not yet see all things subjected to Him. But we do see Him who was made for a little while lower than the angels, namely, Yeshua, because of the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor, so that by the grace of God He might taste death for everyone.

Sin entered the world through Adam, as Romans 5:12-17 says, 

Therefore, just as through one man sin entered into the world, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men, because all sinned—for until the Law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no law. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those who had not sinned in the likeness of the offense of Adam, who is a type of Him who was to come. But the free gift is not like the transgression. For if by the transgression of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God and the gift by the grace of the one Man, Messiah Yeshua, abound to the many. The gift is not like that which came through the one who sinned; for on the one hand the judgment arose from one transgression resulting in condemnation, but on the other hand the free gift arose from many transgressions resulting in justification. For if by the transgression of the one, death reigned through the one, much more those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness will reign in life through the One, Messiah Yeshua.

Yeshua died on the cross to redeem man of his sin, as Hebrew 2:10-13 continues. 

For it was fitting for Him, for whom are all things, and through whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to perfect the author of their salvation through sufferings. For both He who sanctifies and those who are sanctified are all from one Father; for which reason He is not ashamed to call them brethren, saying, “I will proclaim Your name to My brethren, in the midst of the congregation I will sing Your praise.” And again, “I will put My trust in Him.” And again, “Behold, I and the children whom God has given Me.”

1 Corinthians 15:20-22 tells us, 

But now Messiah has been raised from the dead, the first fruits of those who are asleep. For since by a man came death, by a man also came the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, so also in Messiah all will be made alive.

We continue to look at the likeness of both Adams as we read in 1 Corinthians 15:40-47

There are also heavenly bodies and earthly bodies, but the glory of the heavenly is one, and the glory of the earthly is another. There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars; for star differs from star in glory. So also is the resurrection of the dead. It is sown a perishable body, it is raised an imperishable body; it is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory; it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power; it is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. If there is a natural body, there is also a spiritual body. So also it is written, “The first man, Adam, became a living soul.” The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. However, the spiritual is not first, but the natural; then the spiritual. The first man is from the earth, earthy; the second man is from heaven.

As all mankind have been born like the first Adam, we will one day all rise again in the resurrection, and we who believe will be like the second Adam, our Messiah, as 1 Corinthians 15:48-49 tells us, “As is the earthy, so also are those who are earthy; and as is the heavenly, so also are those who are heavenly. Just as we have borne the image of the earthy, we will also bear the image of the heavenly.”

As we see here in Colossians 2:15, the second Adam, our Messiah Yeshua, won the victory over all the evil forces in the heavenly realm. “When He had disarmed the rulers and authorities, He made a public display of them, having triumphed over them through Him.”

Because of the victory of the second Adam, Messiah Yeshua, we too can have victory over the evil forces. 

As Ephesians 6:10-13 tells us, 

Finally, be strong in the Lord and in the strength of His might. Put on the full armor of God, so that you will be able to stand firm against the schemes of the devil. For our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the powers, against the world forces of this darkness, against the spiritual forces of wickedness in the heavenly places. Therefore, take up the full armor of God, so that you will be able to resist in the evil day, and having done everything, to stand firm.

Luke 10:18-20 speaks of the power we have over the devil, and also our victory. 

He replied, “I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven. I have given you authority to trample on snakes and scorpions and to overcome all the power of the enemy; nothing will harm you. However, do not rejoice that the spirits submit to you, but rejoice that your names are written in heaven.”

The crown that Adam lost, Yeshua our Messiah retook, and one day we all will wear the crown of glory. 1 Peter 5:4 tells us, “And when the Chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the unfading crown of glory.”

Leviticus 8:9 speaks about a crown that was to be placed on the High Priest Aaron’s head: “He also placed the turban on his head, and on the turban, at its front, he placed the golden plate, the holy crown, just as the Lord had commanded Moses.” This is because Aaron represents Adam going into the Holy Place. After Adam was crowned, he entered the Holy Place, God’s presence in the garden. So too Aaron, after being crowned, ministered in the tabernacle. This represents Yeshua, the heavenly High Priest, who will one day wear the crown as He sits on the throne in the Kingdom. 

Zechariah 6:12-13 talks about the priest who sits on the throne, that is, Yeshua: 

Then say to him, “Thus says the Lord of hosts, ‘Behold, a man whose name is Branch, for He will branch out from where He is; and He will build the temple of the Lord. Yes, it is He who will build the temple of the Lord, and He who will bear the honor and sit and rule on His throne. Thus, He will be a priest on His throne, and the counsel of peace will be between the two offices.’”

Zechariah 9:9-10 talks about Yeshua the Messiah and the peace that His earthly reign will bring: 

Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Shout in triumph, O daughter of Jerusalem! Behold, your King is coming to you; He is just and endowed with salvation, humble, and mounted on a donkey, even on a colt, the foal of a donkey. I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim and the horse from Jerusalem; and the bow of war will be cut off. And He will speak peace to the nations; and His dominion will be from sea to sea, and from the River to the ends of the earth.

This passage was fulfilled in part when Yeshua rode into Jerusalem on a donkey prior to His crucifixion, and one day the rest will be fulfilled: His Kingdom will reign over all the earth.

And the last victory will be over death itself, as 1 Corinthians 15:53-55, tells us, 

For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality. So when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, “Death is swallowed up in victory. O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory?”

If Yeshua is the second Adam, and we are the Bride of Messiah, then we can be compared to Eve. In preparation for the creation of Eve, Adam falls into a deep sleep: “So the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and while he slept took one of his ribs and closed up its place with flesh” (Genesis 2:21). This is a foreshadowing of Yeshua’s death, since sleep is used as a euphemism for death, as in John 11:11-14:

After saying these things, He said to them, “Our friend Lazarus has fallen asleep, but I go to awaken him.” The disciples said to Him, “Lord, if he has fallen asleep, he will recover.” Now Yeshua had spoken of his death, but they thought that He meant taking rest in sleep. Then Yeshua told them plainly, “Lazarus has died.”

In this sleep, Adam’s side was pierced to remove a rib, just like Yeshua’s side was pierced: “But one of the soldiers pierced His side with a spear, and at once there came out blood and water” (John 19:34). Through this sleep (death) and the removal of the rib, God created a wife for Adam, just like believers become Yeshua’s wife through His death:

Husbands, love your wives, as Messiah loved the church and gave Himself up for her. . . . Because we are members of His body. “Therefore a man shall leave his father and mother and hold fast to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh.” This mystery is profound, and I am saying that it refers to Messiah and the church. (Ephesians 5:25, 30-32)

All things will come together, as we read in 1 Corinthians 15:23-28

But each in his own order: Messiah the first fruits, after that those who are Messiah’s at His coming, then comes the end, when He hands over the Kingdom to the God and Father, when He has abolished all rule and all authority and power. For He must reign until He has put all His enemies under His feet. The last enemy that will be abolished is death. For He has put all things in subjection under His feet. But when He says, “All things are put in subjection,” it is evident that He is excepted who put all things in subjection to Him. When all things are subjected to Him, then the Son Himself also will be subjected to the One who subjected all things to Him, so that God may be all in all.

One day the part of God that was drawn back to create space will be filled in, and there will be no need for time. Then as Isaiah saw in his vision, God’s train will once again fill the temple as we used for our example, the space that was created for man. We will live in God’s presence for eternity. For the Scripture tells us in John 14:20, “You will know at that time that I am in My Father and you are in Me and I am in you.”

So, one day we will all be in the Father, who will cover us with His glory, which is His presence, for our Messiah Yeshua is the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end.

Psalm 36:5-9 tells us, 

Your love, Lord, reaches to the heavens, Your faithfulness to the skies. Your righteousness is like the highest mountains, Your justice like the great deep. You, Lord, preserve both people and animals. How priceless is Your unfailing love, O God! People take refuge in the shadow of Your wings. They feast on the abundance of Your house; You give them drink from Your river of delights. For with You is the fountain of life; in Your light we see light.

The Fall of the Angels

But this all leads us to the fallen angels: when did they fall, and why did they fall? Now, we want to say at this time that when Satan and the angels fell, it had to have been right before Adam and Eve fell, because as we said, before this time God called His creation good. 

Ezekiel 28:12-19 speaks a mystery about the fall of Satan: 

This is what the Sovereign Lord says: “You were the seal of perfection, full of wisdom and perfect in beauty. You were in Eden, the garden of God; every precious stone adorned you: carnelian, chrysolite and emerald, topaz, onyx and jasper, lapis lazuli, turquoise and beryl. Your settings and mountings were made of gold; on the day you were created they were prepared. You were anointed as a guardian cherub, for so I ordained you. You were on the holy mount of God; you walked among the fiery stones. You were blameless in your ways from the day you were created till wickedness was found in you. Through your widespread trade you were filled with violence, and you sinned. So I drove you in disgrace from the mount of God, and I expelled you, guardian cherub, from among the fiery stones. Your heart became proud on account of your beauty, and you corrupted your wisdom because of your splendor. So I threw you to the earth; I made a spectacle of you before kings. By your many sins and dishonest trade you have desecrated your sanctuaries. So I made a fire come out from you, and it consumed you, and I reduced you to ashes on the ground in the sight of all who were watching. All the nations who knew you are appalled at you; you have come to a horrible end and will be no more.”

  1. Were There Two Edens?

This Scripture in Ezekiel tells us that Satan, this angel, the image of perfection, was in the Garden of Eden. We know that the Jewish scholars believe that Eden was created before the foundation of the world. We read here that Satan was the guardian cherub who was on the mount of God, but we also see that after he sinned he was thrown to the earth. So can we surmise that Eden was located in the heavenlies? 

Remember what Yeshua told the thief on the cross? Luke 23:43 tells us, “And He said to him, ‘Truly I say to you, today you shall be with Me in Paradise.’”

Was the Paradise that Yeshua was speaking of the same Paradise that Satan once dwelt in? Is there a Paradise in heaven and a Paradise here on earth? Could it be the same situation as the sanctuary—one in heaven and a copy on earth? As Hebrews 8:5 tells us, 

They serve at a sanctuary that is a copy and shadow of what is in heaven. This is why Moses was warned when he was about to build the tabernacle: “See to it that you make everything according to the pattern shown you on the mountain.”

Let’s see if we can answer this question by taking a closer look into verse 14: “You were anointed as a guardian cherub, for so I ordained you. You were on the holy mount of God; you walked among the fiery stones.” 

  1. Holy Fire

The imagery in Ezekiel 28 takes us to the temple, as we see the image of Satan as the guardian cherub, or more specifically the “overarched” cherub, which makes us think of the golden-winged cherubs that guarded the Ark of the Covenant. God said to Moses that He would meet him between the wings of the cherubim, as Exodus 25:22 tells us, “There I will meet with you; and from above the mercy seat, from between the two cherubim which are upon the ark of the testimony, I will speak to you about all that I will give you in commandment for the sons of Israel.” 

The ark is where the presence of God resided. In ancient literature, all deities did their business on mountains or in well-watered gardens. So I think that we can assume by the text that Eden is where God resided, and Satan was the angel that walked with God. 

So when we think of the fiery stones, this can only mean the holy mountain of God. We see that Mount Sinai, where Moses met God, was all ablaze with fire: “And when you heard the voice from the midst of the darkness, while the mountain was burning with fire, you came near to me, all the heads of your tribes and your elders” (Deuteronomy 5:23). We know that the bush was also ablaze with fire when God called Moses: “And the angel of the LORD appeared to him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush. He looked, and behold, the bush was burning, yet it was not consumed” (Exodus 3:2). 

These fiery stones also give us the imagery of the Urim and Thummim which the priest would use when inquiring of the Lord. These stones would flash with a fiery light in accordance to the answer given by God. 

Psalm 104:4 even speaks of His angels as fire: “He makes the winds His messengers, flaming fire His ministers.” 

And of course, we know that God Himself is fire, as Hebrews 12:28-29 tells us, “Therefore, since we receive a kingdom which cannot be shaken, let us show gratitude, by which we may offer to God an acceptable service with reverence and awe; for our God is a consuming fire.” 

So we see by this imagery that yes, there could be two Edens. Years later, God had the Israelites construct a place on earth that would become another Eden, and that place was the Tent of Meeting which later became the temple. For we know that over the Ark of the Covenant there was a cloud of fire. Exodus 13:21-22 also tells us, 

The Lord was going before them in a pillar of cloud by day to lead them on the way, and in a pillar of fire by night to give them light, that they might travel by day and by night. He did not take away the pillar of cloud by day, nor the pillar of fire by night, from before the people.

This pillar of fire was the same pillar of fire that rested upon the ark when the people would settle from their journey in the wilderness.

So, let’s continue on as we discuss the fall of the angels.

We read in Luke 10:18, “Yeshua replied, ‘I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven.’”

We see again in Isaiah 14:12-15

How you have fallen from heaven, morning star, son of the dawn! You have been cast down to the earth, you who once laid low the nations! You said in your heart, “I will ascend to the heavens; I will raise my throne above the stars of God; I will sit enthroned on the mount of assembly, on the utmost heights of Mount Zaphon. I will ascend above the tops of the clouds; I will make myself like the Most High.” But you are brought down to the realm of the dead, to the depths of the pit.

We want to answer two questions: How could Satan have once laid low the nations? And isn’t Yeshua the one who is called the Morning Star? 

  1. Let Truth Reign

In Ezekiel 28, Ezekiel has intertwined the imagery of the king of Babylon with Satan, comparing the fall of the King of Babylon to the fall of Satan. We know that the king of Babylon brought low the nations, as Isaiah 14:3-11 tells us, 

It shall come to pass in the day the Lord gives you rest from your sorrow, and from your fear and the hard bondage in which you were made to serve, that you will take up this proverb against the king of Babylon, and say: “How the oppressor has ceased, the golden city ceased! The Lord has broken the staff of the wicked, the scepter of the rulers: he who struck the people in wrath with a continual stroke, he who ruled the nations in anger, is persecuted and no one hinders. The whole earth is at rest and quiet; they break forth into singing. Indeed the cypress trees rejoice over you, and the cedars of Lebanon, saying, ‘Since you were cut down, no woodsman has come up against us.’ Hell from beneath is excited about you, to meet you at your coming; it stirs up the dead for you, all the chief ones of the earth; it has raised up from their thrones all the kings of the nations. They all shall speak and say to you: ‘Have you also become as weak as we? Have you become like us? Your pomp is brought down to Sheol, and the sound of your stringed instruments; the maggot is spread under you, and worms cover you.’”

So that explains how Satan laid low the nations. But this also corresponds to the fall of the Harlot of Babylon in Revelation 18:9-20

And the kings of the earth, who committed acts of immorality and lived sensuously with her, will weep and lament over her when they see the smoke of her burning, standing at a distance because of the fear of her torment, saying, “Woe, woe, the great city, Babylon, the strong city! For in one hour your judgment has come.” And the merchants of the earth weep and mourn over her, because no one buys their cargoes any more—cargoes of gold and silver and precious stones and pearls and fine linen and purple and silk and scarlet, and every kind of citron wood and every article of ivory and every article made from very costly wood and bronze and iron and marble, and cinnamon and spice and incense and perfume and frankincense and wine and olive oil and fine flour and wheat and cattle and sheep, and cargoes of horses and chariots and slaves and human lives. The fruit you long for has gone from you, and all things that were luxurious and splendid have passed away from you and men will no longer find them. The merchants of these things, who became rich from her, will stand at a distance because of the fear of her torment, weeping and mourning, saying, “Woe, woe, the great city, she who was clothed in fine linen and purple and scarlet, and adorned with gold and precious stones and pearls; for in one hour such great wealth has been laid waste!” And every shipmaster and every passenger and sailor, and as many as make their living by the sea, stood at a distance, and were crying out as they saw the smoke of her burning, saying, “What city is like the great city?” And they threw dust on their heads and were crying out, weeping and mourning, saying, “Woe, woe, the great city, in which all who had ships at sea became rich by her wealth, for in one hour she has been laid waste!” Rejoice over her, O heaven, and you saints and apostles and prophets, because God has pronounced judgment for you against her.

When one does not follow the true light, he will end up following the false light. 

Satan was not the angel of light, but only appeared as the angel of light to deceive mankind, as 2 Corinthians 11:13-15 tells us, 

For such men are false apostles, deceitful workers, masquerading as apostles of Messiah. And no wonder, for Satan himself masquerades as an angel of light. It is not surprising, then, if his servants masquerade as servants of righteousness. Their end will be what their actions deserve.

In Roman astronomy, the name Lucifer was given to the Morning Star, which we now call Venus. The Morning Star appears in the heavens just before dawn, just before the sunrise. The name Lucifer comes from the Latin term lucem ferre meaning “bearer of light.” Isaiah was only implying that the two, the king of Babylon and Satan, were both deceivers. Today’s modern versions of the Bible have used the term “morning star” for Satan, but this term only refers to the Lord Messiah Yeshua and using it for anyone else is plain blasphemy.

In Revelation 22:16 Yeshua clearly says, “I, Yeshua, have sent My angel to give you this testimony for the churches. I am the Root and the Offspring of David, and the bright Morning Star.” 

Numbers 24:17 tells us that Baalam prophesied about this star who would be the Messiah: “I see Him, but not now; I behold Him, but not near; a star shall come forth from Jacob, a scepter shall rise from Israel, and shall crush through the forehead of Moab, and tear down all the sons of Sheth.”

  1. We All Have to Make a Choice

We have to ask ourselves, why did this beautiful, perfect angel fall? When God said he was the seal of perfection, we have to think: what does that mean? Back in the day when people would put a seal on their documents, it meant that they gave that document their utmost consideration and approval. We know that after every day of creation God said it was good, but of Satan God said His seal of perfection was placed upon him. 

How much more can you say than, “How could he have rebelled against God?” After all, God was his creator also. The angels, like man, have a choice, and when Satan made his choice to be like God, many angels made their choice to follow him.

In Revelation 22:9 the angel says this to John when he bows down to him: “No, don’t worship me. I am a servant of God, just like you and your brothers the prophets, as well as all who obey what is written in this book. Worship only God!” One day everything will be in Yeshua—man and angel and all will be in God. 

So the question is, why? Why did Satan fall? The story goes, in Jewish belief, that when God created Adam, Satan saw that God had a different relationship with man than with the angels. Man was made in His image and God loved Adam and Eve. God created and gave all of His creation into their hands and He crowned them with His glory. Satan became jealous. 

Wisdom of Solomon 2:23-24 says that it was the devil’s envy that brought death into the world: “God created man for incorruption, and made him in the image of His own eternity, but through the devil’s envy death entered the world, and those who belong to his party experience it.” 

Also, in the Latin Life of Adam and Eve, the first couple asks the devil why he is so intent on deceiving humanity and trying to make us fall. His response is that humans are the reason for his fall: 

It is for thy sake that I have been hurled from that place [heaven]. When thou wast formed, I was hurled out of the presence of God and banished from the company of the angels. When God blew into thee the breath of life and thy face and likeness was made in the image of God, Michael also brought thee and made us worship thee in the sight of God; and God the Lord spake: “Here is Adam. I have made thee in our image and likeness.” And Michael went out and called all the angels saying, “Worship the image of God as the Lord God hath commanded.” . . . And I answered, “I have no need to worship Adam.” And since Michael kept urging me to worship, I said to him, “Why dost thou urge me? I will not worship an inferior and younger being than I. I am his senior in the Creation, before he was made was I already made. It is his duty to worship me.” When the angels, who were under me, heard this, they refused to worship him. And Michael saith, “Worship the image of God, but if thou wilt not worship him, the Lord God will be wrath with thee.” And I said, “If He be wrath with me, I will set my seat above the stars of heaven and will be like the Highest.” And God the Lord was wrath with me and banished me and my angels from our glory; and on thy account were we expelled from our abodes into this world and hurled on the earth. And straightway we were overcome with grief, since we had been spoiled of so great glory. And we were grieved when we saw thee in such joy and luxury. And with guile I cheated thy wife and caused thee to be expelled through her doing from thy joy and luxury, as I have been driven out of my glory.

According to the Pirkei de Rabbi Eliezer, the devil and his band of angels decided to cause the man to sin because they felt threatened by him. God proved Adam’s power when He gave him authority to name the animals: “When the ministering angels saw this they retreated, and the ministering angels said: If we do not take counsel against this man so that he sin before his Creator, we cannot prevail against him” (13:1). 

We know that Satan was also filled with pride, and we know what happens when one is full of pride, as Proverbs 16:18 tells us, “Pride goes before destruction, and a haughty spirit before a fall.”

Satan, even though he was the most beautiful angel and the highest ranking angel who stood before God, was not satisfied, for he too wanted to be God and have people bow down to Him. We see here the beginning of Humanism, the religion of Satan, which says we all are gods. Satan wanted to sit on God’s throne and reign over man and creation. So now Satan has become God’s adversary and the accuser of the brethren—for that is what the name Satan means, ”accuser,” proving to God that His mankind could and would also fall.

Satan comes to Eve as a snake to deceive her into thinking that if they ate from the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, they too would be gods. This religion of Satan has come all throughout history to today. Let’s pick up the story in Genesis 3:1-7

Now the serpent was more crafty than any of the wild animals the Lord God had made. He said to the woman, “Did God really say, ‘You must not eat from any tree in the garden’?” The woman said to the serpent, “We may eat fruit from the trees in the garden, but God did say, ‘You must not eat fruit from the tree that is in the middle of the garden, and you must not touch it, or you will die.’” 

“You will not certainly die,” the serpent said to the woman. “For God knows that when you eat from it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil.” When the woman saw that the fruit of the tree was good for food and pleasing to the eye, and also desirable for gaining wisdom, she took some and ate it. She also gave some to her husband, who was with her, and he ate it. Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they realized they were naked; so they sewed fig leaves together and made coverings for themselves.

Eve was not the only one that Satan tempted, as we see in Matthew 4:1-11

Then Yeshua was led by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. After fasting forty days and forty nights, He was hungry. The tempter came to Him and said, “If You are the Son of God, tell these stones to become bread.” Yeshua answered, “It is written: ‘Man shall not live on bread alone, but on every word that comes from the mouth of God.’” Then the devil took Him to the holy city and had Him stand on the highest point of the temple. “If You are the Son of God,” he said, “throw yourself down. For it is written: ‘He will command His angels concerning you, and they will lift you up in their hands, so that you will not strike your foot against a stone.’” Yeshua answered him, “It is also written: ‘Do not put the Lord your God to the test.’” Again, the devil took Him to a very high mountain and showed Him all the kingdoms of the world and their splendor. “All this I will give You,” he said, “if You will bow down and worship me.” Yeshua said to him, “Away from me, Satan! For it is written: ‘Worship the Lord your God, and serve Him only.’” Then the devil left Him, and angels came and attended Him.

We see here a similar situation where Satan used food to tempt, and again his motive was to get Yeshua to worship him.

So here in chapter 3 of Genesis we see the fall of man, and we see the possession of the serpent by Satan. Pirkei de Rabbi Eliezer 13:3 says that the serpent was possessed by the angel Samael, which could perhaps be understood as another name for the devil: 

A parable, to what is the matter like? To a man in whom there was an evil spirit. All the deeds which he does, or all the words which he utters, does he speak by his own intention? Does he not act only according to the idea of the evil spirit, which (rules) over him? So (was it with) the serpent. All the deeds which it did, and all the words which it spake, it did not speak except by the intention of Samael.

This was the first time, but not the last time, that Lucifer would possess someone or something. We know that Satan entered into Judas as John 13:26-27 tells us, 

Yeshua answered, “It is the one to whom I will give this piece of bread when I have dipped it in the dish.” Then, dipping the piece of bread, He gave it to Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot. As soon as Judas took the bread, Satan entered into him.

So if Satan was cast out of heaven why do we still see him in heaven? We must understand that God created the heavens, which consisted of three levels. Remember, Satan wanted to leave his position to sit on the throne of God which was above the heavenlies, as Psalm 113:4-6 tells us, “The Lord is exalted over all the nations, His glory above the heavens. Who is like the Lord our God, the One who sits enthroned on high, who stoops down to look on the heavens and the earth?“

  1. The Accuser of the Brethren

As the accuser of the brethren, Satan has to come before God, the righteous Judge, to plead his case. We see him before God asking Him if Job was as righteous as God said He was. So God allowed Job to be put to the test. Job 1:6-12 says, 

One day the angels came to present themselves before the Lord, and Satan also came with them. The Lord said to Satan, “Where have you come from?” Satan answered the Lord, “From roaming throughout the earth, going back and forth on it.” Then the Lord said to Satan, “Have you considered My servant Job? There is no one on earth like him; he is blameless and upright, a man who fears God and shuns evil.” 

“Does Job fear God for nothing?” Satan replied. “Have You not put a hedge around him and his household and everything he has? You have blessed the work of his hands, so that his flocks and herds are spread throughout the land. But now stretch out Your hand and strike everything he has, and he will surely curse You to Your face.” The Lord said to Satan, “Very well, then, everything he has is in your power, but on the man himself do not lay a finger.” Then Satan went out from the presence of the Lord.

Again, in Zechariah 3:1-2

Then he showed me Joshua the High Priest standing before the angel of the Lord, and Satan standing at his right side to accuse him. The Lord said to Satan, “The Lord rebuke you, Satan! The Lord, who has chosen Jerusalem, rebuke you! Is not this man a burning stick snatched from the fire?”

But Satan does not work alone, for one third of the angels fell with him in his rebellion. These angels are called demons; and just as before their fall, the devil’s army of angels also have rank, as we see in Colossians 2:14-15:

Having canceled the charge of our legal indebtedness, which stood against us and condemned us; He has taken it away, nailing it to the cross. And having disarmed the powers and authorities, He made a public spectacle of them, triumphing over them by the cross.

And yet again in Ephesian 6:12, “For our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the powers of this dark world and against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly realms.”

We see this in Luke 10:17-19

The seventy-two returned with joy, saying, “Lord, even the demons are subject to us in Your name!” He replied, “I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven. I have given you authority to trample on snakes and scorpions and to overcome all the power of the enemy; nothing will harm you.”

Since we have looked into the beginning, let us now look at the end. Revelation 12:3-4 tells us, 

Then another sign appeared in heaven: an enormous red dragon with seven heads and ten horns and seven crowns on its heads. Its tail swept a third of the stars out of the sky and flung them to the earth. The dragon stood in front of the woman who was about to give birth, so that it might devour her child the moment he was born.

Revelation 12:7-9 continues,

Then war broke out in heaven. Michael and his angels fought against the dragon, and the dragon and his angels fought back. But he was not strong enough, and they lost their place in heaven. The great dragon was hurled down—that ancient serpent called the devil, or Satan, who leads the whole world astray. He was hurled to the earth, and his angels with him.

The time will come when the accuser of the brethren will no longer be able to come and stand before God. He will be thrown out once and for all.

Revelation 12:10-12 tells us, 

Now the salvation, and the power, and the Kingdom of our God and the authority of His Messiah have come, for the accuser of our brethren has been thrown down, he who accuses them before our God day and night. And they overcame him because of the blood of the Lamb and because of the word of their testimony, and they did not love their life even when faced with death. For this reason, rejoice, O heavens and you who dwell in them. Woe to the earth and the sea, because the devil has come down to you, having great wrath, knowing that he has only a short time.

Knowing that his time is short, the devil will go out to deceive the nations. This is what he is doing today. Satan will possess the one that will be called the Antichrist or the Lawless One, for he will be against the Torah (God’s Word). We see throughout history many people who fit the description of the Antichrist—Nero, Constantine (who changed the Appointed Times to pagan days), Hitler, and so many more, as John tells us in 1 John 2:18, “Dear children, this is the last hour; and as you have heard that the Antichrist is coming, even now many antichrists have come. This is how we know it is the last hour.”

This is what the last hour looks like,

Revelation 13:1-6 says this: 

And the dragon stood on the sand of the seashore. Then I saw a beast coming up out of the sea, having ten horns and seven heads, and on his horns were ten diadems, and on his heads were blasphemous names. And the beast which I saw was like a leopard, and his feet were like those of a bear, and his mouth like the mouth of a lion. And the dragon gave him his power and his throne and great authority. I saw one of his heads as if it had been slain, and his fatal wound was healed. And the whole earth was amazed and followed after the beast; they worshiped the dragon because he gave his authority to the beast; and they worshiped the beast, saying, “Who is like the beast, and who is able to wage war with him?” There was given to him a mouth speaking arrogant words and blasphemies, and authority to act for forty-two months was given to him. And he opened his mouth in blasphemies against God, to blaspheme His name and His tabernacle, that is, those who dwell in heaven.

Satan will finally have his desire fulfilled as being ruler of the nations. He will deceive them as he did Eve and everyone else throughout the centuries. His religion of Humanism, which says everyone is a god, will come to an end with the fall of Babylon. Yeshua will conquer the devil, and as Revelation 20:2 tells us, “He seized the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is the devil, or Satan, and bound him for a thousand years.”

  1. The Sacrifice That Covers Us

After Adam and Eve ate from the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, their eyes were opened and the glory of God stripped them bare, and in their shame they covered themselves with fig leaves. But God showed mercy and sacrificed animals to clothe them. 

So, if Adam and Eve made garments from the fig leaves, then why did God have to clothe them? And why did He have to sacrifice animals to do it? I mean, didn’t God just speak the world into existence? Why didn’t He just speak garments into being and have them appear on the spot? I guess the answer is that this was a foreshadowing of what God told the serpent in Genesis 3:14-15,

So the Lord God said to the serpent, “Because you have done this, cursed are you above all livestock and all wild animals! You will crawl on your belly and you will eat dust all the days of your life. And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and hers; he will crush your head, and you will strike his heel.”

The Targum Pseudo-Jonathan on Genesis 3:15 interprets this verse as a prophecy about the Messiah, although not in quite the same way as it would come to be understood in Christianity: 

And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between the seed of thy son, and the seed of her sons; and it shall be when the sons of the woman keep the commandments of the law, they will be prepared to smite thee upon thy head; but when they forsake the commandments of the law, thou wilt be ready to wound them in their heel. Nevertheless for them there shall be a medicine, but for thee there will be no medicine; and they shall make a remedy for the heel in the days of the King Messiah.

In this interpretation the serpent, rather than being the devil as we understand it, instead represents the evil inclination. The Targum says that evil desires can be conquered by submitting to God’s commandments. Ultimately, however, it promises the ultimate victory only when the Messiah comes. 

We know that this was fulfilled when Yeshua came. Yeshua was the one who was going to crush Satan’s head, and in so doing Satan was going to bruise His heel. We know that this is what serpents do, because they slither upon the ground and when they lift their heads they snap at your heels. But our Messiah is high and lifted up, and He was able, and so He did crush his head. 

Yeshua’s sacrifice was a sin offering that made atonement for sin. The sin offering was made for sins committed in ignorance, or unintentional sins. This is interesting, because we see here that it may be committed out of ignorance. We see in Genesis 3:13 that God asks Eve this question: “Then the Lord God said to the woman, ‘What is this that you have done?’” 

As you see, He did not say, “You should have known better,” or “I told you.” The question was asked as if she didn’t realize what she had done. But God demonstrated that He would send someone who would make this sacrifice on our behalf once and for all. 

So let’s look at the crucifixion, after Yeshua had died. John 19:34 tells us this: “But one of the soldiers pierced His side with a spear, and at once there came out blood and water.” If Yeshua was already dead, then why did the soldier thrust His side? It was to show us that Yeshua died for the sin that took place at the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil. Eve was created from the rib of Adam, and Yeshua was thrust through at His ribs. It was truly finished! Yeshua’s sacrifice on God’s altar, where He shed His blood for our sin, now covers us. The Lamb that was slain before the foundation of the world, which was in the spiritual realm, now fulfilled it in the physical realm, and it was now truly finished.

Genesis 3:24 goes on to tell us, “So He drove the man out; and at the east of the Garden of Eden He stationed the cherubim and the flaming sword which turned every direction to guard the way to the Tree of Life.” 

To understand this better we must look at the whole scenario. Adam and Eve, who had been immortal with the glory of God all around them, now faced imminent death. 

They could no longer come into God’s presence. You must realize the pain that Adam and Eve felt, and this is exactly what sin brings—pain, abandonment, and death. There would be no more walking with God in the cool of the evening. There would be no more garden with all of God’s provisions, but only toil and hard work and hardships. 

So we see that cherubs now guard the garden of Eden with flaming swords. We know that Satan was the “Arch-Cherub,” like the archangels that covered the Ark of the Presence in the Tent of Meeting. And what was in the Ark of the Presence? The Ten Commandments, the Tree of Life, as Proverbs 3:13-18 tells us, 

Blessed are those who find wisdom, those who gain understanding, for she is more profitable than silver and yields better returns than gold. She is more precious than rubies; nothing you desire can compare with her. Long life is in her right hand; in her left hand are riches and honor. Her ways are pleasant ways and all her paths are peace. She is a tree of life to those who take hold of her; those who hold her fast will be blessed.

Scripture also tells us that the Sword of the Spirit is the Word of God, a Tree of Life for those who take hold of it. The Garden of Eden, which was peaceful and bountiful and held the Tree of Life which was for all those who would receive her, was now barred and guarded with flaming swords. This is the same Garden of Eden that was believed to have existed before the foundation of the world. It was now off limits to mankind. We know that the Mishkan, the Tent of Meeting, represented the Garden of Eden. We know that the most inner court, which was called the Holy of Holies, was where the presence of God resided, and it was so holy that even the High Priest could not enter it except for once a year, as Hebrews 9:6-7 tells us, 

Now when these things have been so prepared, the priests are continually entering the outer tabernacle performing the divine worship, but into the second, only the High Priest enters once a year, not without taking blood, which he offers for himself and for the sins of the people committed in ignorance.

Hebrews 9:11-12 tells us . 

But when Messiah appeared as a High Priest of the good things to come, He entered through the greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this creation; and not through the blood of goats and calves, but through His own blood, He entered the Holy Place once for all, having obtained eternal redemption.

We see that the second Adam, Yeshua our Messiah, was also immortal and became like one of us, mortal. He was the glory of God, and became a servant. He too was cast out from the presence of God when He who knew no sin took upon Himself the sins of the world. He became our High Priest through His shed blood by which He became our atonement, and His shed blood now covers us.


We find another High Priest, named Melchizedek. He too is a mystery.

Who was this man, and where did he come from? We read about a story where Abraham and Melchizedek meet after Abraham wins a great victory.

Genesis 14:17-23 says, 

Then after his return from the defeat of Chedorlaomer and the kings who were with him, the king of Sodom went out to meet him at the valley of Shaveh (that is, the King’s Valley). And Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine; now he was a priest of God Most High. He blessed him and said, “Blessed be Abram of God Most High, possessor of heaven and earth; and blessed be God Most High, who has delivered your enemies into your hand.” He gave him a tenth of all. The king of Sodom said to Abram, “Give the people to me and take the goods for yourself.” Abram said to the king of Sodom, “I have sworn to the Lord God Most High, possessor of heaven and earth, that I will not take a thread or a sandal thong or anything that is yours, for fear you would say, ‘I have made Abram rich.’”

There have been many theories about who this High Priest was. In Jewish tradition it is believed that Melchizedek was Noah’s son, Shem. Some people believe that it was Yeshua, but let’s see if that is really true.

Hebrews 7:1-17 tells us this:

For this Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of the Most High God, met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings and blessed him, and to him Abraham apportioned a tenth part of everything. He is first, by translation of his name, king of righteousness, and then he is also king of Salem, that is, king of peace. He is without father or mother or genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life, but resembling the Son of God he continues a priest forever. See how great this man was to whom Abraham the patriarch gave a tenth of the spoils! And those descendants of Levi who receive the priestly office have a commandment in the law to take tithes from the people, that is, from their brothers, though these also are descended from Abraham. But this man who does not have his descent from them received tithes from Abraham and blessed him who had the promises. It is beyond dispute that the inferior is blessed by the superior. In the one case tithes are received by mortal men, but in the other case, by one of whom it is testified that he lives. One might even say that Levi himself, who receives tithes, paid tithes through Abraham, for he was still in the loins of his ancestor when Melchizedek met him. Now if perfection had been attainable through the Levitical priesthood (for under it the people received the law), what further need would there have been for another priest to arise after the order of Melchizedek, rather than one named after the order of Aaron? For when there is a change in the priesthood, there is necessarily a change in the law as well. For the one of whom these things are spoken belonged to another tribe, from which no one has ever served at the altar. For it is evident that our Lord was descended from Judah, and in connection with that tribe Moses said nothing about priests. This becomes even more evident when another priest arises in the likeness of Melchizedek, who has become a priest, not on the basis of a legal requirement concerning bodily descent, but by the power of an indestructible life. For it is witnessed of Him, “You are a priest forever, after the order of Melchizedek.”

So we see that Melchizedek is the king of righteousness, king of Salem, and the king of peace. We know that the meaning of Jerusalem is “city of peace (shalom).” In Hebrew it is Yerushalayim. David writes in Psalm 76:2, “His tabernacle is in Salem; His dwelling place also is in Zion.”

We know that Melchizedek was in Jerusalem. So what was he doing there? We know that he had no genealogy, which means he was not a mortal man. He was a heavenly being resembling the Son of God. Now, people think this means that he was Yeshua, but this is not so, because the angels were also referred to as sons of God. One example of this is in Genesis 6:1-2, “When man began to multiply on the face of the land and daughters were born to them, the sons of God saw that the daughters of man were attractive. And they took as their wives any they chose.”

So we know that Melchizedek was a heavenly being in Jerusalem and that he was a High Priest. Now, we know that angels surrounded the Tree of Life in Jerusalem with flaming swords. The location of the Tree of Life had to be the place where the temple would one day be built—in fact, right where the Holy of Holies would be. This place was so holy that Melchizedek the High Priest was ministering to the Lord there. 

Abraham knew to give him a tenth, maybe because Abraham knew of him. Before the Torah was given on Mount Sinai, we see in the Scriptures many of the commandments being kept—for instance, Cain and Abel giving offerings to God, and here with Abraham giving a tithe. We know that the Torah is like the Tree of Life to all who take hold of it, and when God gave the Torah to His people at Mt. Sinai it was like releasing the Tree of Life from those flaming swords. That is why over the Ark of the Covenant the angels’ wings are arched: for man (the High Priest) to come into God’s presence once again. 

When Yeshua died, the last and final offering for sin, He made the way for all of us to enter into God’s presence and partake of the Tree of Life. By His sacrifice Yeshua tore the veil, as Matthew 27:50-51 tells us, “And Messiah cried again with a loud voice and gave up His spirit. And at once the curtain of the sanctuary of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom; the earth shook and the rocks were split.” Melchizedek was the foreshadowing of all of that which was fulfilled in Yeshua. 

Abraham was given that revelation in part with Melchizedek and in full at the binding of Issac. John 8:56-58 tells us, “’Abraham your father rejoiced to see My day; he saw it and was glad.’ So the Jews said to Him, ‘You are not yet fifty years old and You have seen Abraham?’ Yeshua said to them, “Amen, amen, I say to you, before Abraham came to be, I AM.’”

Yeshua made the way for us to once again eat from the fruit of the Tree of Life and walk with our creator in the cool of the evening. 

So after all of that, we now see why God clothed Adam and Eve: for only in Messiah are we really clothed. Before Messiah, only the blood of bulls and goats could cover us, but now our righteousness in Messiah surpasses any animal sacrifice. 

One thing we must understand is that when Adam and Eve were told to leave the garden, the world entered into a dark period. With the presence of God removed from Adam and Eve, all mankind would now suffer. Only a few people would hear God’s voice. Only a few people had a revelation, and for the most part God only allowed this to happen after the flood, starting when He called Abraham. 

But then God, on Mount Sinai, gave His chosen people His revelation in the giving of the Torah, and with that God came down on the mountain with fire, as Exodus 19:18 tells us. “Mount Sinai was covered with smoke, because the LORD descended on it in fire. The smoke billowed up from it like smoke from a furnace, and the whole mountain trembled violently.” 

But we see that Israel falls short and the darkness continues. Time and time again God has to remind His people through a word given by a prophet. But then there arose a prophet that Scripture said would be the light to the nations. Isaiah 9:2 says, “The people who walk in darkness will see a great light; those who live in a dark land, the light will shine on them.” This was fulfilled by Yeshua’s ministry, as he quotes this verse in Matthew 4:16, “The people who were sitting in darkness saw a great Light, and those who were sitting in the land and shadow of death, upon them a Light dawned.” Yeshua came and He was the long awaited Light. He brought us the revelation that was lost at Eden, for He was the Word made flesh and dwelt among us.

Galatians 3:26-27 tells us, “For you are all sons of God through faith in Messiah Yeshua. For all of you who were baptized into Messiah have clothed yourselves with Messiah.”

Ephesians 2:13 tells us, “But now in Messiah Yeshua you who formerly were far off have been brought near by the blood of Messiah.” Now we can be clothed in His righteousness

In Yeshua, the fulfillment spoken of in the garden was now complete. The serpent’s head has been crushed after the Redeemer’s heel was bruised, and the flaming swords which guarded the Tree of Life are now laid aside so all can come once again to eat from the Tree of Life.

The Mark of Cain

Adam and Eve now find themselves living outside of the garden. They have two sons, Cain and Abel. We are going to pick up the story at Genesis 4:9-15, where we find Cain just after he kills his brother. 

Then the Lord said to Cain, “Where is Abel your brother?” He said, “I do not know; am I my brother’s keeper?” And the Lord said, “What have you done? The voice of your brother’s blood is crying to Me from the ground. And now you are cursed from the ground, which has opened its mouth to receive your brother’s blood from your hand. When you work the ground, it shall no longer yield to you its strength. You shall be a fugitive and a wanderer on the earth.” Cain said to the Lord, “My punishment is greater than I can bear. Behold, You have driven me today away from the ground, and from Your face I shall be hidden. I shall be a fugitive and a wanderer on the earth, and whoever finds me will kill me.” Then the Lord said to him, “Not so! If anyone kills Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold.” And the Lord put a mark on Cain, lest any who found him should attack him.

God comes and asks Cain where his brother is. We know from verses 6-7 that God had warned Cain, something different than happened with Eve: “The Lord said to Cain, ‘Why are you angry, and why has your face fallen? If you do well, will you not be accepted? And if you do not do well, sin is crouching at the door. Its desire is contrary to you, but you must rule over it.’”

God punishes Cain for His sin. We see no sin offering here because Cain was warned, and the deed could no longer have been done in ignorance. God cursed Cain and sent him off to be a fugitive, a wanderer. But Cain, who just killed his brother, now fears his own death. Now, you would have thought that Adam would have been the one to lament to God that he would no longer see His face after the exile from Eden, but here Cain does so, although he already was a fugitive and was hidden from God. Cain is just being a little hypocritical here with God, because he is only thinking of himself and not what he had just done to his brother. 

So what was this mark that God placed on Cain’s forehead? Well, we have to think about what Cain had just done: he killed his brother. The Torah teaches this regarding the cities of refuge in Deuteronomy 19:11-13

However, suppose a person hates someone else and stalks him, attacks him, kills him, and then flees to one of these cities. The elders of his own city must send for him and remove him from there to deliver him over to the blood avenger to die. You must not pity him, but purge from Israel the guilt of shedding innocent blood, so that it may go well with you.

The Code of Hammurabi, which is one of the oldest sets of laws, basically says, “An eye for an eye.” So we see why Cain was afraid that someone would kill him. This mark had to have been something that people would recognize and know meant that they were to leave Cain untouched. Remember what the Scripture tells us about Satan: he was the seal of perfection. So we can only imagine that the mark was some kind of seal. 

Let’s look at some Scriptures to back this up. First of all, we see that we too are sealed, as we read in Ephesians 1:13-14,

And when you heard the word of truth (the gospel of your salvation)—when you believed in Messiah—you were marked with the seal of the promised Holy Spirit, who is the down payment of our inheritance, until the redemption of God’s own possession, to the praise of His glory.

And again in Revelation 7:2-3

Then I saw another angel ascending from the east, who had the seal of the living God. He shouted out with a loud voice to the four angels who had been given permission to damage the earth and the sea: “Do not damage the earth or the sea or the trees until we have put a seal on the foreheads of the servants of our God.”

We see that the Israelites put the blood on their doorposts as a sign, as Exodus 12:22-23 tells us, 

Take a bunch of hyssop and dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and touch the lintel and the two doorposts with the blood that is in the basin. None of you shall go out of the door of his house until the morning. For the Lord will pass through to strike the Egyptians, and when He sees the blood on the lintel and on the two doorposts, the Lord will pass over the door and will not allow the destroyer to enter your houses to strike you.

(As an aside, the Targum Pseudo-Jonathan on Genesis 4:3 says that the sacrifice of Cain and Abel was a Passover sacrifice: “And it was at the end of days, on the fourteenth of Nisan, that Cain brought of the produce of the earth . . . ”. If this is true, then it adds an interesting dimension to Yeshua’s crucifixion, which also took place on Passover. The author of Hebrews notes that the blood of Yeshua “speaks a better word than the blood of Abel” (Hebrews 12:24), and maybe there is more to this comparison than has previously been recognized. While the blood of righteous Abel cried out to God in condemnation, Yeshua’s blood speaks forgiveness and cleansing for all those who come to be washed by Him.)

We see the rainbow was a sign in Genesis 9:13, “I have set My bow in the cloud, and it shall be a sign of the covenant between Me and the earth.”

Circumcision was a sign, as Genesis 17:11 tells us, “You shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskins, and it shall be a sign of the covenant between Me and you.”

Even the letter “A” was put upon people who committed adultery. This is in fact what the Pirkei de Rabbi Eliezer says the mark was: one of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. “What did the Holy One, blessed be He, do? He took one letter from the twenty-two letters, and put it upon Cain’s arm that he should not be killed, as it is said, ‘And the Lord appointed a sign for Cain’” (Pirkei de Rabbi Eliezer 21). Alternatively, another tradition said that the word “Sabbath” was inscribed on him: 

There are some who say that the word “Sabbath” was placed as a sign upon his countenance, as it is said: ‘My Sabbaths, for it is the sign between Me and you, throughout your generations’ (Exodus 31:13), and that just as the Sabbath pleaded in behalf of Adam, it pleaded in behalf of Cain. Others, however, insist that He fastened a horn upon his forehead. (Midrash Tanchuma, Bereshit 10.1)

We do know that Cain was not sealed or marked as one of God’s servants, but in fact as one of God’s enemies—an enemy who had God’s protection from his enemies. Why would God do this? Maybe God hoped he would repent, or maybe God showed mercy, or maybe He wanted Cain to live out his punishment. 

We also see in Revelation 13:15-18,

The second beast was empowered to give life to the image of the first beast so that it could speak, and could cause all those who did not worship the image of the beast to be killed. He also caused everyone (small and great, rich and poor, free and slave) to obtain a mark on their right hand or on their forehead. Thus no one was allowed to buy or sell things unless he bore the mark of the beast—that is, his name or his number. This calls for wisdom: Let the one who has insight calculate the beast’s number, for it is man’s number, and his number is 666.

Maybe Cain was branded with a mark or a letter, but either way we see that this was common.

Some traditions were passed down which tried to explain that eventually justice was served to Cain in the end. One tradition said that Cain was accidentally killed by Lamech, based on his outburst in Genesis 4:24, “If Cain is avenged sevenfold, then Lamech seventy-sevenfold.” Here is the tradition as explained in the Midrash Tanchuma. This story is dependent on the tradition that the mark of Cain was a horn that grew out of his forehead: 

For one hundred and thirty years, Cain became an angel of death, wandering and roaming about, accursed. Lamech, his descendant in the seventh generation, who was blind, would go hunting led about by his young son. At the sight of game, the lad would apprise his father of its whereabouts. One time the lad said to his father: “I see some kind of beast in the distance.” Lamech sent his arrow in that direction, and Cain was slain. As they approached the corpse, the lad saw a horn protruding from the forehead of the slain creature, and he said to his father: “The corpse resembles a man, but a horn protrudes from its forehead.” Thereupon, Lamech cried out: “Woe is me, it is my grandfather.” In his grief, he clasped his hands together, and accidentally struck the child’s head, killing him. As it is said: I can slay a man by a wound of mine and a child by a strike of mine (Genesis. 4:23)” (Midrash Tanchuma, Bereshit 11.2). 

While this tradition interprets Lamech’s declaration as one of mourning, it is also possible to interpret it as one of triumph, where Lamech is boasting of his capacity for violence in response to minor infractions, killing a man for merely hitting him. Yeshua reverses this declaration of vengeance, from avenging seventy-seven fold to forgiving even to seventy-seven times: “Then Peter came up and said to Him, ‘Lord, how often will my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? As many as seven times?’ Yeshua said to him, ‘I do not say to you seven times, but seventy-seven times’” (Matthew 18:22). 

An alternative tradition about Cain’s death is found in the book of Jubilees. This story emphasizes the idea of “measure for measure”, and Cain is killed with the same object he used to kill his brother: 

At the close of this jubilee Cain was killed after him [Adam] in the same year; for his house fell upon him and he died in the midst of his house, and he was killed by its stones; for with a stone he had killed Abel, and by a stone was he killed in righteous judgment. (Jubilees 4:31)

Giants in the Land

We are now going to look at Genesis 6:1-4, which speaks about another mystery:

Now it came about, when men began to multiply on the face of the land, and daughters were born to them, that the sons of God saw that the daughters of men were beautiful; and they took wives for themselves, whomever they chose. Then the LORD said, “My Spirit shall not strive with man forever, because he also is flesh; nevertheless his days shall be one hundred and twenty years.” The Nephilim were on the earth in those days, and also afterward, when the sons of God came in to the daughters of men, and they bore children to them. Those were the mighty men who were of old, men of renown.

This passage has led to a lot of questions and a lot of speculation throughout the centuries. Not all of the details are clear, and many have tried to fill in the gaps in different ways. Nevertheless, let’s try to break this down a little further and see if we can find out what this cryptic passage means. 

First, let’s note the context of this passage. These verses at the beginning of chapter 6 follow Adam’s genealogy in chapter 5. On the other end, directly following our passage we are told that mankind has become evil, and God instructs Noah that he is to build an ark. So it looks like this passage functions as a prologue to the flood. 

One of the first questions we can ask is, who are these sons of God? Even without leaving this passage we should notice that the “sons of God” are contrasted against the “daughters of men”. The fact that this is the case suggests that these sons of God are not sons of men. In other words, they are not human.

Some believe that this is not necessarily the case. They believe that “sons of God” should be understood in the sense of “children of God.” They believe that the sons of God were the righteous sons of Adam, the line of Seth, whereas the nondescript “men” and their daughters were the wicked descendants of Cain. John Calvin, for example, believed in this interpretation. An early Christian author, Julius Africanus, describes this view: 

When men multiplied on the earth, the angels of heaven came together with the daughters of men. In some copies I found “the sons of God.” What is meant by the Spirit, in my opinion, is that the descendants of Seth are called the sons of God on account of the righteous men and patriarchs who have sprung from him, even down to the Savior Himself; but that the descendants of Cain are named the seed of men, as having nothing divine in them, on account of the wickedness of their race and the inequality of their nature, being a mixed people, and having stirred the indignation of God. (Fragment 2) 

One of the famous Jewish commentators, Nachmanides (also called “the Ramban”), seems to also hold to something like this view: 

The correct interpretation in my eyes is that Adam and his wife are called “B’nei Ha-Elohim” because they were God’s creation and He was their father, they had no father but Him. And Adam bore children as it says, “And he bore sons and daughters.” Now these men, who were the first to be born to a human mother and father, were perfect in height and strength because they were born in the likeness of their father. As it says about Seth, “And he bore a son in his own likeness after his image.” And it is possible that all the children of the first generations—Adam, Seth and Enosh—were called “B’nei Ha-Elohim” because these three men were made in the image of God. But when the worship of idols commenced, men became weak and slack.

This interpretation, however, does not follow from a straightforward reading of the text. It requires us to translate the word for “mankind” as only one particular line of Adam’s descendants when there is no indication in the text that it should be limited this way. Many choose this interpretation simply because they are uncomfortable with the alternative, that the sons of God are not human. John Calvin says as much in his Commentary on Genesis

That ancient figment, concerning the intercourse of angels with women, is abundantly refuted by its own absurdity; and it is surprising that learned men should formerly have been fascinated by ravings so gross and prodigious.

But if this is what the Bible teaches, then who are we to say it is absurd?

Another alternative explanation is that the sons of God were judges or rulers. This is considered a possible interpretation because of the Hebrew word used. Elohim can mean God, but there is the possibility that it can also mean “judges” (as it is translated, for example, in the King James translation of Exodus 21:6), although it is debatable whether this is an appropriate translation. Nachmanides, in his commentary on Genesis 6, also talks about this possibility in addition to the view described above: “The sons of the rulers: According to this rendering those who were charged with establishing justice trampled it openly.” The Targums Onkelos and Pseudo-Jonathan also do this by translating “sons of God” as “sons of the mighty” or “sons of the great”, that is, the sons of the mighty men of that generation. This view suffers from the same critique as does the previous one. In addition it suffers if elohim should not be translated as “judges” or “mighty men”.

Another critique of these interpretations is that, if this passage really was referring to a mixing of human races, e.g. of Seth and Cain, it is strange that it would not mention both that the Sethite sons took Cainite women and also that Cainite men took Sethite women. Instead, it is entirely one-sided, with the sons of God going to the daughters of men. This contradicts the usual way that the Bible talks about the sinful intermarriage of God’s people with other people groups, as in Judges 3:6: “And they took their daughters for themselves as wives, and gave their own daughters to their sons, and served their gods.”

So, who were these sons of God? The most likely explanation is that they are angels. The phrase “sons of God” is explicitly used to describe angels in the book of Job. Speaking of the heavenly throne room, we are told: “Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord, and Satan also came among them” (Job 1:6). Later in the book this connection is again made, when God is speaking of how the angels praised Him for His creation, “When the morning stars sang together and all the sons of God shouted for joy” (Job 38:7).

Some contest this view by saying that the Bible never says angels are able to procreate, and they say that Yeshua implies the opposite in Matthew 22:30 when He says regarding the righteous in the world to come: “In the resurrection they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven.” But this critique does not hold. This passage in Matthew is the only one that says anything explicit about angels and procreation. Although Yeshua says that angels do not marry, and thus do not have sexual relations, He only says this is true of the angels in heaven. What about angels on earth, angels who have fallen from heaven? Further, He doesn’t rule out that angels are capable of procreation. He merely says that in heaven they don’t. Choosing not to procreate, of course, doesn’t imply that one doesn’t have the ability to procreate. Thus, there is no Scripture which rules out this possibility.

In fact, there is good evidence from the New Testament which supports the angelic interpretation. 

Jude tells us this: 

And angels who did not keep their own domain, but abandoned their proper abode, He has kept in eternal bonds under darkness for the judgment of the great day, just as Sodom and Gomorrah and the cities around them, since they in the same way as these indulged in gross immorality and went after strange flesh, are exhibited as an example in undergoing the punishment of eternal fire. (Jude 1:6-7)

Jude speaks of angels who left their proper abode (that is, heaven), and he explicitly says that they sinned “in the same way” as Sodom and Gomorrah. In the case of Sodom and Gomorrah, human men sought to have intercourse with angels (Genesis 19:1-5). In Genesis 6, angels sought to have intercourse with humans. Jude says it is the same sin in both cases, just flipped around. 

This interpretation was popular among certain groups in the Second Temple period of Judaism. Two texts are particularly interesting on this subject: Jubilees and 1 Enoch. Before proceeding, it must be remembered that these are not Scripture and thus aren’t authoritative. They are interesting for the purpose of learning how ancient Jewish interpreters of Scripture filled in the gaps and interpreted the mysterious nature of Genesis 6:1-4.

Jubilees recounts a genealogy of Adam’s line, working off of the genealogy in Genesis. We are told that Mahalalel begets a son and names him Jared: “for in his days the angels of the Lord descended on the earth, those who are named the Watchers, that they should instruct the children of men, and that they should do judgment and uprightness on the earth” (4:15). There is a play on words with the Hebrew: “Jared” sounds like yarad, which means “to descend.” According to this tradition, the angels at first were ordered to come down to earth in order to teach mankind the ways of righteousness. We are introduced to a new term here: the Watchers. This term is also used in 1 Enoch. It is apparently used to refer to a particular class of angels. The term is found in the Bible in Daniel 4: “I saw in the visions of my head as I lay in bed, and behold, a watcher, a holy one, came down from heaven” (verse 13).

Continuing in Jubilees, we find that the angels of God who were sent to instruct mankind in righteousness have on the contrary fallen into wickedness and brought great harm to the earth. It is as a direct result of the sins of these Watchers that God brings about the flood, but not before destroying the giants who are the Watchers’ offspring and then chaining the fallen angels in dungeons where they will be kept until the final judgment: 

And it came to pass when the children of men began to multiply on the face of the earth and daughters were born unto them, that the angels of God saw them on a certain year of this jubilee, that they were beautiful to look upon; and they took themselves wives of all whom they chose and they bare unto them sons and they were giants. And lawlessness increased on the earth and all flesh corrupted its way, alike men and cattle and beasts and birds and everything that walks on the earth—all of them corrupted their ways and their orders, and they began to devour each other, and lawlessness increased on the earth and every imagination of the thoughts of all men (was) thus evil continually. . . . And against the angels whom He had sent upon the earth, He was exceedingly wroth, and He gave commandment to root them out of all their dominion, and He bade us [the upright angels of the presence] to bind them in the depths of the earth and behold they are bound in the midst of them, and are (kept) separate. And against their sons went forth a command from before His face that they should be smitten with the sword, and be removed from under heaven. And He said “My spirit shall not always abide on man; for they also are flesh and their days shall be one hundred and twenty years.” And He sent His sword into their midst that each [of the giants] should slay his neighbor, and they began to slay each other till they all fell by the sword and were destroyed from the earth. And their fathers [the Watchers] were witnesses (of their destruction), and after this they were bound in the depths of the earth for ever, until the day of the great condemnation, when judgment is executed on all those who have corrupted their ways and their works before the Lord.” (Jubilees 5:1-2, 6-10)

Jubilees 7:21-26 recounts the specific sins which led to the flood. It also tells us about three different classes of beings who were descended from the fallen Watchers: Naphidim (or Giants), Naphil (Nephilim), and Eljo (or Elioud). 

For owing to these three things came the flood upon the earth, namely, owing to the fornication wherein the Watchers against the law of their ordinances went a whoring after the daughters of men, and took themselves wives of all which they chose: and they made the beginning of uncleanness. And they begat sons the Naphidim, and they were all unlike, and they devoured one another: and the Giants slew the Naphil, and the Naphil slew the Eljo, and the Eljo mankind, and one man another. And everyone sold himself to work iniquity and to shed much blood, and the earth was filled with iniquity. And after this they sinned against the beasts and birds, and all that moves and walks on the earth: and much blood was shed on the earth, and every imagination and desire of men imagined vanity and evil continually. And the Lord destroyed everything from off the face of the earth; because of the wickedness of their deeds, and because of the blood which they had shed in the midst of the earth He destroyed everything.

A more focused narrative is attempted by the author of 1 Enoch, although several different strands of tradition are present in this single work. In 1 Enoch 6, we are told that the leader of the Watchers is named Semjaza. He and 200 other angels follow their lusts, going down to the earth to pursue human women. Contradicting this, other passages in 1 Enoch depict the angel Azazel as the leader of this group. These names and the idea that these particular angels sinned are preserved in fragmentary form in some rabbinic literature. We find a hint in Yoma 67b, amid a discussion about what the name Azazel means or refers to in Leviticus 16. This passage of Scripture explains the rituals required on the Day of Atonement, Yom Kippur: 

He shall take the two goats and set them before the Lord at the entrance of the tent of meeting; and Aaron shall cast lots on the two goats, one lot for the Lord and the other lot for Azazel. Aaron shall present the goat on which the lot fell for the Lord, and offer it as a sin offering; but the goat on which the lot fell for Azazel shall be presented alive before the Lord to make atonement over it, that it may be sent away into the wilderness to Azazel. (Leviticus 16:7-10)

One explanation that the rabbis offer for this act of sending a goat to Azazel is relevant here: “The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Azazel is so called because it atones for the actions of Uzza and Azael.” Azael is an alternative name for Azazel. Uzza is probably the same as Semjaza (Semjaza literally means “the name Azza/Uzza”). This rabbinic phrase thus shows a familiarity with the tradition that Azazel and Semjaza, mentioned in 1 Enoch, sinned and fell. This is likewise preserved in the Targum Pseudo-Jonathan on Genesis 6:4:

Schamchazai and Uzziel, who fell from heaven, were on the earth in those days; and also, after the sons of the Great had gone in with the daughters of men, they bare to them: and these are they who are called men who are of the world, men of names.

Notice that this Targum replaces the word “Nephilim” in Genesis 6:4 with the names of two fallen angels, Schamchazai (an alternate transliteration for Semjaza) and Uzziel (possibly an alternate transliteration of Azazel), and explains that these angels fell (nafal, thus they are Nephilim) from heaven. This Targum was of the opinion that the Nephilim were the fallen angels rather than their offspring the giants.

In addition to bearing children who are giants, the fallen Watchers teach humanity to practice witchcraft: 

And all the others together with them took unto themselves wives, and each chose for himself one, and they began to go in unto them and to defile themselves with them, and they taught them charms and enchantments, and the cutting of roots, and made them acquainted with plants. And they became pregnant, and they bare great giants, whose height was three thousand ells [i.e., over 2 miles] who consumed all the acquisitions of men. And when men could no longer sustain them, the giants turned against them and devoured mankind. And they began to sin against birds, and beasts, and reptiles, and fish, and to devour one another’s flesh, and drink the blood. (1 Enoch 7:1-5)

In addition, the fallen Watchers teach mankind how to make weapons, slay each other, decorate their appearances, and worship idols. The author then introduces us to four good angels: Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Gabriel. They are each assigned a separate task in rectifying the actions of the fallen Watchers: God sends Uriel to warn Noah about the impending judgment which is coming due to the increase of lawlessness. He sends Raphael to bind Azazel and cast him into a great chasm in the wilderness. He commands Gabriel to destroy the children of the Watchers (the giants) by causing them to wage war against each other. He sends Michael to bind Semjaza and his associates “in the valleys of the earth” (1 Enoch 10:12). Azazel, Semjaza, and the horde of fallen angels are to be kept bound in their respective prisons until the final judgment at the end of time, after which we are told they will be cast into the abyss of fire. There are several places in Scripture that could support this. Isaiah 24:21 says, “On that day the Lord will punish the host of heaven, in heaven, and the kings of the earth, on the earth.” The “host of heaven” could be the disobedient angels. Likewise, 2 Peter 2:4 says, “God did not spare angels when they sinned, but cast them into hell and committed them to pits of darkness, reserved for judgment.”

Moving on to the next part of our passage in Genesis 6, we see that God limits the lifespan of humans because of the preceding actions. Some have suggested that this is because the union of angels and humans led to offspring that had particularly impressive longevity. Perhaps some of the humans happily obliged the angels’ advances in an attempt to gain immortality. God says that man is flesh, and this is the reason why He had to destroy the world in the flood, to prevent humanity from overstepping its bounds.

Verse 4 is equally cryptic: “The Nephilim were on the earth in those days, and also afterward, when the sons of God came in to the daughters of men, and they bore children to them.” This is the first time we are hearing about the Nephilim, but it seems like we are supposed to already know who they are. 

First, let’s focus on an ambiguity in the phrasing of the verse. It could mean that the Nephilim were simply around during the same time as the offspring of the sons of God. It could mean that they are this offspring. Or it could be that they are the sons of God themselves, the fallen angels. According to this last view, it is supposed that the name “Nephilim” comes from the root nfl, which means “to fall.” Thus, the angels fell to the earth from their heavenly estate when they succumbed to their temptations. Earlier we saw that this was the explanation given by the Targum Pseudo-Jonathan. A similar explanation could be given if this term refers instead to the offspring of the sons of God, because they would be the children of the fallen ones.

There is Biblical support for the idea that the Nephilim are the offspring of the fallen angels and humans. There is only one other place in Scripture where the term “Nephilim” is used, and we find it in Numbers 13. This passage recounts when the Israelite spies were sent to go look at the Promised Land and report back to the people. When they come back, they tell some harrowing details:

So they gave out to the sons of Israel a bad report of the land which they had spied out, saying, “The land through which we have gone, in spying it out, is a land that devours its inhabitants; and all the people whom we saw in it are men of great size. There also we saw the Nephilim (the sons of Anak are part of the Nephilim); and we became like grasshoppers in our own sight, and so we were in their sight.” (Numbers 13:32-33)

This passage tells us that the Anakim or sons of Anak, a race of Canaanites, were one of the groups which made up the Nephilim. The passage here indicates that the Nephilim were human in form, but with much larger proportions. The inhabitants of the land, the Nephilim, are “of great size.” They are giants, and apparently this is because they are the descendants of the fallen angels.

This connection in Numbers 13 shows us that we can learn more about the Nephilim by looking at what the Bible says about the Anakim. So who were the Anakim? “Anakim” is the plural of Anak. We find that Anak was the father of a nation of giants. Anak had three sons named Sheshai, Ahiman and Talmai. 

Caleb defeated these three Anakim:

According to the commandment of the Lord to Joshua, he gave to Caleb the son of Jephunneh a portion among the people of Judah, Kiriath-arba, that is, Hebron (Arba was the father of Anak). And Caleb drove out from there the three sons of Anak, Sheshai and Ahiman and Talmai, the descendants of Anak. (Joshua 15:13-14)

Here we see that Caleb renamed Kiriath-Arba to Hebron after he drove out the Anakim who dwelt there. Originally this city was named after “Arba,” who was Anak’s father. Joshua 14:15 says that Arba was “the greatest man among the Anakim.” 

Joshua also destroyed many of the Anakim in the conquest. By the time he was finished, Anakim only remained in Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod: cities which would later be inhabited by the Philistines.

And Joshua came at that time and cut off the Anakim from the hill country, from Hebron, from Debir, from Anab, and from all the hill country of Judah, and from all the hill country of Israel. Joshua devoted them to destruction with their cities. There was none of the Anakim left in the land of the people of Israel. Only in Gaza, in Gath, and in Ashdod did some remain. (Joshua 11:21-22)

Joshua and Caleb, who alone of their generation trusted God to assist them in fighting against the Anakim, are the same ones who do in fact defeat them once God brings them into the Promised Land. 

In another Scripture, we are told that the Anakim are part of a group known as the Rephaim. “Rephaim” is sometimes translated simply as “giants”, but it could also function as a personal name, meaning a descendant of Rapha. Although we aren’t told about any individual with this name, we might assume that he was a giant who became the father of groups like the Anakim. Speaking of one of the lands of the Ammonites, Moses says, “The Emim formerly lived there, a people great and many, and tall as the Anakim. Like the Anakim they are also counted as Rephaim, but the Moabites call them Emim” (Deuteronomy 2:10-11). 

Later, in verse 20, it is again said of this land, “It is also counted as a land of Rephaim. Rephaim formerly lived there—but the Ammonites call them Zamzummim—a people great and many, and tall as the Anakim; but the Lord destroyed them before the Ammonites.” There are many foreign names here, and it can get confusing to see so many unfamiliar terms. To recap and simplify: we know that there was a group of giants who were descended from angels. These giants were called Nephilim. Another name for these giants is Rephaim, and in fact this is a Hebrew word which is translated as “giants”. The Moabites knew of this group of giants, but they called them Emim instead. “Emim” is derived from the root which means “terror” or “fear”, and it doesn’t take too much imagination to figure out how they got this title. Likewise, the Ammonites called this group Zamzummim. This title is an onomatopoeia, or a word that sounds like what it represents. In English, an example would be “splat”: the word sounds like the noise we are describing with that word. Zamzummim is based on the root zamzum, which means one who makes a buzzing noise. It is not clear why they would be given this title. Some have connected this with Isaiah’s description of the noise which mediums or necromancers make: “the mediums and the necromancers who chirp and mutter” (Isaiah 8:19).

In Genesis 14, we read about how some of the Canaanite armies defeated these giants: 

In the fourteenth year Chedorlaomer and the kings who were with him came and defeated the Rephaim in Ashteroth-karnaim, the Zuzim in Ham, the Emim in Shaveh-kiriathaim, and the Horites in their hill country of Seir as far as El-paran on the border of the wilderness. (Genesis 14:5-6)

Here we see these different titles which we learned about earlier associated with different areas of the land: the Rephaim, the Zuzim (short for Zamzummim), and the Emim. This same group of kings led by Chedorlaomer who are described here as defeating the giants would later in Genesis 14 be defeated, with God’s help, by Abraham. 

Rephaim are sometimes connected with the afterlife, in Hebrew called Sheol. The term Rephaim in this context has been understood as referring to disembodied souls of the dead, as in Isaiah 14:9, “Sheol from beneath is excited over you to meet you when you come; it arouses for you the spirits of the dead [Heb. rephaim], all the leaders of the earth; it raises all the kings of the nations from their thrones.” It could be, on the other hand, that this doesn’t refer to disembodied souls in general, but more precisely is meant to refer to the fallen angels and the slain giants, who were traditionally believed to be imprisoned in Sheol as we saw earlier. For example, Job 26:5 says, “The departed spirits tremble under the waters and their inhabitants.” In this verse, “departed spirits” is translated for rephaim. “Under the waters” would be a poetic description of Sheol, the place where souls are kept until the final judgment. The Greek Septuagint translation consistently translated “departed spirits” instead as “giants,” even here in this passage of Job, making the connection more explicit. (For other references, see: Isaiah 26:14, 19; Ezekiel 32:20-23; Psalm 88:10; Proverbs 2:18; 9:18; 21:16; 2 Peter 3:7, 2:4; Jude 1:13.)

Another similar idea is expressed in Jubilees and 1 Enoch, where the souls of the Nephilim become the evil spirits and demons who afflict the earth. Jubilees depicts Noah praying for relief from the afflictions of demons against his sons: 

And Thou knowest how Thy Watchers, the fathers of these spirits [the demons], acted in my day: and as for these spirits which are living, imprison them and hold them fast in the place of condemnation, and let them not bring destruction on the sons of thy servant, my God. (verse 5)

1 Enoch 15:8-12 explains it explicitly:

And now, the giants, who are produced from the spirits and flesh, shall be called evil spirits upon the earth, and on the earth shall be their dwelling. Evil spirits have proceeded from their bodies; because they are born from men and from the holy Watchers is their beginning and primal origin; they shall be evil spirits on earth, and evil spirits shall they be called. [As for the spirits of heaven, in heaven shall be their dwelling, but as for the spirits of the earth which were born upon the earth, on the earth shall be their dwelling.] And the spirits of the giants afflict, oppress, destroy, attack, do battle, and work destruction on the earth, and cause trouble: they take no food, but nevertheless hunger and thirst, and cause offenses. And these spirits shall rise up against the children of men and against the women, because they have proceeded from them.

Relief is promised, however: the spirits of the giants will work destruction until the consummation of the age, the final judgment, and then they will be destroyed. As an aside, this sheds an interesting light on Matthew 8:29, where the demons cry out to Yeshua, “What have you to do with us, O Son of God? Have you come here to torment us before the time?” 

The struggles of the Israelites against the Nephilim raises the question: did these giants survive the flood? We have Nephilim before the flood, and we have Nephilim after the flood. How does this flush with the Scriptural fact that the flood covered the world and wiped out all flesh that wasn’t on the ark? There is no direct answer from Scripture. 

Some have mused that perhaps some of the Nephilim were able to survive the flood because of their great height. In Jewish tradition, many stories grew around the character Og, who was one of the Rephaim. We meet Og for the first time in Numbers 21:33-35. He is introduced as the king of Bashan: 

Then they turned and went up by the way of Bashan, and Og the king of Bashan went out with all his people, for battle at Edrei. But the LORD said to Moses, “Do not fear him, for I have given him into your hand, and all his people and his land; and you shall do to him as you did to Sihon, king of the Amorites, who lived at Heshbon.” So they killed him and his sons and all his people, until there was no remnant left him; and they possessed his land.

Later, in Deuteronomy 3 we are told that Og was of a great size. He was a giant:

For only Og the king of Bashan was left of the remnant of the Rephaim. Behold, his bed was a bed of iron. Is it not in Rabbah of the Ammonites? Nine cubits was its length, and four cubits its breadth, according to the common cubit. (verse 11)

The dimensions given here would make Og’s bed approximately 13.5 feet by 6 feet. Despite this fixed limit for Og’s height, legends grew about the size of Og, with some tales having him survive the flood because he was so tall. One story in Niddah 24b has Og’s thighbone measuring over 9 miles: 

It is taught in a baraita that Abba Shaul says the following, and some say that Rabbi Yoḥanan said it: I used to be a gravedigger. Once I ran after a deer, and I entered the thighbone of a corpse; and it was so large that I ran after the deer for three parasangs [1 parasang was about 3-3.5 miles] inside the thighbone, and although I did not reach the deer, the thighbone did not end. When I came back and related this to the Sages, they said to me: It was evidently the thighbone of Og, king of Bashan. 

Another tradition has Og survive the flood by hitching a ride on the ark. Pirkei de Rabbi Eliezer 22:8 relates this legend: 

And all living things which were upon the face of the earth decayed, as it is said, “And every living thing was destroyed which was upon the face of the ground” (Genesis 7:23), except Noah and those who were with him in the ark, as it is said, “And Noah only was left, and they that were with him in the ark” (ibid.), except Og, king of Bashan, who sat down on a piece of wood under the gutter of the ark. He swore to Noah and to his sons that he would be their servant for ever. What did Noah do? He bored an aperture in the ark, and he put (through it) his food daily for him, and he also was left, as it is said, “For only Og, king of Bashan, remained of the remnant of the giants” (Deuteronomy 3:11).

So, one possibility is that at least one of the Nephilim survived the flood. But others have criticized this view. Genesis 7:23 says that every living thing that was not in the ark perished in the flood. This would rule out the option of the Nephilim being tall enough to escape the floodwaters.

Another possibility of how the Nephilim appeared again after the flood is that somehow their genetic material was passed on to later generations through Noah’s grandchildren. It is possible that the women Noah’s sons married had some Nephilim DNA, and thus the Nephilim could have reappeared after the flood as Noah’s descendants.

A third possibility is that there was a repetition of the events in Genesis 6:1-4, with angels once again having children with humans. Although it is not narrated by the Bible, it does not seem to be impossible either. Genesis 6:4 says that “The Nephilim were on the earth in those days, and also afterward,” which could possibly imply two separate waves of Nephilim, before and after the flood. 

Another possibility is that the Nephilim could have been transported off of the earth prior to the flood, returning afterward. Some see a connection between angelic/demonic appearances and UFO sightings. We know that angels can descend and ascend between heaven and earth, as in Genesis 28:12: “And he dreamed, and behold, there was a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven. And behold, the angels of God were ascending and descending on it!” It is therefore possible that the fallen angels took their children to some other place for a time until the flood was over.

Ultimately, the Bible does not give us any explicit answers about how there came to be Nephilim before and after the flood, so all of this is speculation.

Joshua did not completely eradicate the Anakim during the conquest, and they would prove to be a thorn in Israel’s side later on. Gath, Gaza, and Ashdod were the only places Joshua was not able to eradicate the Rephaim, and these were Philistine cities. The Philistines would be one of Israel’s chief enemies later on. The Philistine champion Goliath was from Gath. This is significant. It is not just a story of David defeating some random giant. This was one of the descendants of Anak who Israel was supposed to have driven out in the initial conquest of the land. It is as if now David will complete the process which Joshua began. 1 Samuel 17:51 calls Goliath a “mighty man” or gibbor, which is the same word used to refer to the Nephilim in Genesis 6:4

According to the standard Hebrew text, Goliath was six cubits and a span tall, which comes out to about 9 feet 9 inches. Goliath’s armor is said to be made of scales. This is possibly meant to mean chain mail, but the word used is the same as is used for example in Leviticus 11:9-10 to describe scales of fish. This connects Goliath with the seed of the serpent in Genesis 3:15

Regardless of any possible biological connection, the giants are presented in Scripture as being the spiritual offspring of the serpent, the enemies of God’s people. David crushed Goliath’s head just like it says in Genesis 3:15, thus this altercation is a foreshadowing of Messiah’s defeat of the devil. The “scaly” language could also be a reference to the Philistine god Dagon, who is believed by some to have been a half-man, half-fish deity. Just as Goliath falls face down and has his head cut off (1 Samuel 17:49-51), so too the god Dagon in his temple fell face down before the ark of the covenant and had his head cut off (1 Samuel 5:3-4).

2 Samuel 21:16-21 lists a few more examples of Rephaim who were still around in the days of David: 

And Ishbi-benob, one of the descendants of the giants, whose spear weighed three hundred shekels of bronze, and who was armed with a new sword, thought to kill David. But Abishai the son of Zeruiah came to his aid and attacked the Philistine and killed him. Then David’s men swore to him, “You shall no longer go out with us to battle, lest you quench the lamp of Israel.” After this there was again war with the Philistines at Gob. Then Sibbecai the Hushathite struck down Saph, who was one of the descendants of the giants. And there was again war with the Philistines at Gob, and Elhanan the son of Jaare-oregim, the Bethlehemite, struck down Goliath the Gittite, the shaft of whose spear was like a weaver’s beam. And there was again war at Gath, where there was a man of great stature, who had six fingers on each hand, and six toes on each foot, twenty-four in number, and he also was descended from the giants. And when he taunted Israel, Jonathan the son of Shimei, David’s brother, struck him down.

After the time of David, there is no more mention of giants. As far as we know, there are no more Anakim or Rephaim on the earth. The battle of the Israelites against the Rephaim is a foreshadowing of Yeshua’s conquest against the demonic, unclean spirits (which, in some streams of Jewish tradition, were in fact the spirits of the Rephaim) during His earthly ministry. Some have made the observation that it is possible something like the birth of the Nephilim will happen again just before the return of Yeshua. This is based on Luke 17:26, “And just as it happened in the days of Noah, so it will be also in the days of the Son of Man.”

The historical kernel of the Nephilim, the mighty men of old, could be preserved in pagan mythologies in a distorted form. After the flood, the first giant is Nimrod. He is called “mighty” in Genesis 10:8. This is the same Hebrew word used in Genesis 6:4 to refer to the Nephilim, the “mighty men”, gibborim. In fact, the Septuagint directly translates this reference to Nimrod as gigas, “giant.”

The Greeks had mythical stories about giants, using the same term gigantes as is used in the Septuagint. Josephus also makes this connection between the descendants of the sons of God and the giants of Greek mythology. Speaking of mankind before the flood he says, 

But for what degree of zeal they had formerly shown for virtue, they now showed by their actions a double degree of wickedness; whereby they made God to be their enemy, for many angels of God accompanied with women, and begat sons that proved unjust, and despisers of all that was good, on account of the confidence they had in their own strength; for the tradition is, that these men did what resembled the acts of those whom the Grecians call giants. (Antiquities of the Jews Book I, 3:1)

In the Greek tradition, the giants were born to the goddess Gaia (personification of earth) when the blood of the god Uranus fell on her. The term gigantes is believed to in fact mean “earth-born”. The giants were believed to live underground, and their presence there was used to explain volcanic activity and earthquakes. They were believed to be of great size and strength. One of the most famous events associated with the giants is their war against the Olympian gods (e.g., Zeus, Poseidon, and Athena), called the Gigantomachy. This was a battle for who would control the cosmos, and it is depicted in numerous pieces of Greek artwork. As would be expected, the giants were defeated. One of the most famous giants was Alcyoneus, who was almost immortal, but with certain conditions by which a particularly skilled hero might slay him. In one source, he is described as being as large as a mountain (Pindar, Isthmian 6.30–35). He is said to have destroyed twelve chariots at once by throwing a huge boulder at them (Pindar, Nemean 4.24–30). It is interesting that some of these giants are associated with snake imagery: some art depicts the giants as having legs made of snakes. Ovid calls them the “serpent footed giants” (Metamorphoses 1.182-184). This is similar to the idea that the Nephilim were the children of the serpent, the devil, if not physically then at least spiritually. 

Aside from stories about giants, mighty men or “gods” who do fantastic feats are also found in the mythologies of many different cultures, enough legends to fill many volumes. A very brief overview of some notable parallels will suffice here. 

In Greek mythology, Zeus is particularly well-known for his lust, explaining his title “father of gods”. Rulers in various places claimed that they were the offspring of gods who had procreated with human women. For example, Alexander the Great believed that he was a distant descendant of the Greek god Achilles, and in time he would come to believe that his father was not the human Philip of Macedon, but rather Zeus himself. Many of us are familiar with the figure Hercules, a hero and Greek god who is well-known for his feats of strength, such as descending to the underworld and capturing the three-headed beast-dog Cerberus. 

Likewise in Norse myth, the gods were exemplified as mighty warriors. The gods were human-like, but they also violated their proper domain, having children with beasts and giants. For example, the god Loki bears children with a giantess, and their offspring take the form of horrific beasts, such as Fenrir, a ferocious wolf who kills Odin in the final battle which consummates the universe. Thor is well-known as a warrior, slaying giants and monsters with his large war-hammer. One of the beasts he defeats is the gigantic sea-serpent Jörmungandr (also known as the World Serpent), another of Loki’s strange progeny. 

And in Vedic mythology, we could point to the goddess Durga, who rides on a tiger and has many arms, each holding a weapon. She is known as a warrior who kills various powerful demons. In this mythological system we once again find heroes who are the children of gods and humans. The great hero Arjuna was born when the god Indra procreated with a human woman. As a result, Arjuna is a great warrior and even survives a fight against the god of war Shiva. 

Again, these are stories that might be inspired by historical memories of the true accounts which are preserved in the Bible while nevertheless being tainted with the notions of idolatry and imagination.

The Prehistoric Age

People weren’t the only giants in the land. We read in Scripture that there were sea monsters. Genesis 1:21 tells us, “God created the great sea monsters and every living creature that moves, with which the waters swarmed after their kind, and every winged bird after its kind; and God saw that it was good.”

When the Jewish midrashim (explanations of the Tanakh) were being composed, it was held that God originally produced a male and a female Leviathan, but lest in multiplying the species should destroy the world, He slew the female, reserving her flesh for the banquet that will be given to the righteous on the advent of the Messiah. This part, about eating Leviathan, is based on Psalm 74:14, “You broke the heads of Leviathan in pieces, and gave him as food to the people inhabiting the wilderness.”

As Rashi says in his commentary on this verse:

the…sea monsters: The great fish in the sea, and in the words of the Aggadah (B.B. 74b), this refers to the Leviathan and its mate, for He created them male and female, and He slew the female and salted her away for the righteous in the future, for if they would propagate, the world could not exist because of them. הַתַּנִינִם (hattaninim) is written. [I.e., the final “yud”, which denotes the plural, is missing, hence the implication that the Leviathan did not remain two, but that its number was reduced to one.] – [from Gen. Rabbah 7:4, Midrash Chaseroth V’Yetheroth, Batei Midrashot, vol 2, p. 225].

Psalm 104:26 says this: “There go the ships of the sea, and Leviathan (the sea monster), which You have formed to sport in it.”

But as we continue to look closer, we may see something different.

As Jeremiah 51:34 tells us, “Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon has devoured me and sucked me dry; he has made me an empty vessel; he has swallowed me like the sea monster; he has filled his belly with my delicacies; he has rinsed me.”

And Ezekiel 29:3

Speak, and you must say, “Thus says the Lord Yahweh: ‘Look! I am against you, Pharaoh, king of Egypt, the great sea monster, the one lying down in the midst of his Nile streams, who says to Me, “It is my Nile, and I made it for myself.”’”

And again in Ezekiel 32:2 

Son of man, raise a lament over Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, and you must say to him, “With a fierce, strong lion among nations you compared yourself, and you are like the sea monster in the seas, and you thrash about in your rivers, and you make water turbid with your feet, and you make your rivers muddy.”

According to Wikipedia, 

Leviathan (/lɪˈvaɪ.əθən/; Hebrew: לִוְיָתָן, Livyatan) is a creature with the form of a sea serpent from Jewish belief, referenced in the Hebrew Bible in the Book of Job, Psalms, the Book of Isaiah, and the Book of Amos. The Leviathan of the Book of Job is a reflection of the older Canaanite Lotan, a primeval monster defeated by the god Baal Hadad. Parallels to the role of Mesopotamian Tiamat defeated by Marduk have long been drawn in comparative mythology, as have been wider comparisons to dragon and world serpent narratives such as Indra slaying Vrtra or Thor slaying Jörmungandr, but Leviathan already figures in the Hebrew Bible as a metaphor for a powerful enemy, notably Babylon (Isaiah 27:1), and some 19th century scholars have pragmatically interpreted it as referring to large aquatic creatures, such as the crocodile. The word later came to be used as a term for “great whale”, as well as for sea monsters in general

Yes, Leviathan may have been a code name for Babylon or Pharoah, as we have seen in these Scriptures, but Leviathan was also symbolic of Satan. 

Isaiah 27:1 tells us, “On that day, Yahweh will punish with His cruel, great and strong sword Leviathan, the fleeing serpent, and Leviathan, the twisting serpent, and He will kill the sea monster that is in the sea.”

Job 26:5-14 speaks of this fleeing serpent and God’s power at creation.

The ghosts of the dead tremble beneath the water, with its creatures. Sheol is naked before Him; Abaddon lies uncovered. He stretches the north over chaos and suspends the earth on nothing. He binds up the water in His thick clouds, yet no cloud is torn apart by it. He shuts off the view of His throne by spreading His cloud across it. He fixed a circle on the surface of the water, defining the boundary between light and dark. The pillars of heaven tremble, aghast at His rebuke. He stirs up the sea with His power, and by His skill He strikes down Rahav. With His Spirit He spreads the heavens; His hand pierces the fleeing serpent. And these are but the fringes of His ways; how faint the echo we hear of Him! But who is able to grasp the meaning of His thundering power?

Revelation 12:1-4 says, 

A great sign appeared in the sky, a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars. She was with child and wailed aloud in pain as she labored to give birth. Then another sign appeared in the sky; it was a huge red dragon, with seven heads and ten horns, and on its heads were seven diadems. Its tail swept away a third of the stars in the sky and hurled them down to the earth. Then the dragon stood before the woman about to give birth, to devour her child when she gave birth.

And again, Revelation 13:1-2 tells us this: 

The dragon stood on the shore of the sea. And I saw a beast coming out of the sea. It had ten horns and seven heads, with ten crowns on its horns, and on each head a blasphemous name. The beast I saw resembled a leopard, but had feet like those of a bear and a mouth like that of a lion. The dragon gave the beast his power and his throne and great authority.

So we see the dragon at the sea to receive the Antichrist.

Sea monsters were not the only giant animals. What about Behemoth in the Old Testament, a powerful, grass-eating animal whose “bones are tubes of bronze, his limbs like bars of iron”? 

Job 40:15-24 says, 

Look at Behemoth, which I made along with you and which feeds on grass like an ox. What strength it has in its loins, what power in the muscles of its belly! Its tail sways like a cedar; the sinews of its thighs are close-knit. Its bones are tubes of bronze, its limbs like rods of iron. It ranks first among the works of God, yet its Maker can approach it with his sword. The hills bring it their produce, and all the wild animals play nearby. Under the lotus plants it lies, hidden among the reeds in the marsh. The lotuses conceal it in their shadow; the poplars by the stream surround it. A raging river does not alarm it; it is secure, though the Jordan should surge against its mouth. Can anyone capture it by the eyes, or trap it and pierce its nose?

Among various Jewish legends, one relates that the righteous will witness a spectacular battle between Behemoth and Leviathan in the Messianic Era and later feast upon their flesh. Again according to Wikipedia, 

Later Jewish sources describe Leviathan as a dragon who lives over the Sources of the Deep and who, along with the male land-monster Behemoth, will be served up to the righteous at the end of time. The Book of Enoch (60:7–9) describes Leviathan as a female monster dwelling in the watery abyss (as Tiamat), while Behemoth is a male monster living in the desert of Dunaydin (“east of Eden”).

We see Behemoth sometimes identified as a hippopotamus and Leviathan as a crocodile, whale, or a snake; but were these creatures dinosaurs? And if they were, why did these giant animals exist? The word “dinosaur” comes from the Greek word which means “terrible lizard.” The current names for dinosaurs have only been since the 1800’s. So we want to briefly look into these giant animals and ask, “Why did God make them, and why did they become extinct?” 

If you ever went to Jurassic theme park, you know that there are not many types of dinosaurs. There are Brachiosaurus, Apatosaurus, Allosaurus, Spinosaurus, and Stegosaurus and even a three-horned one called Triceratops. But that’s not all! We also have the Pterodactyls, which were giant flying reptiles, and Plesiosaurs, which were water reptiles, and bird-type dinosaurs known as theropods. There were also Woolly Mammoths (and their cousin Steppe Mammoth) who stood 13-15 feet tall and had giant tusks. 

So you have to ask yourself, “Was all of mankind taller then what we are today?” There is the theory out there that says these huge creatures lived before the creation of man. Well, that is partly true for the animals were created before man, but it is not true that they became extinct before man was created because they were these terrible, violent animals that could not co-exist with man. God created a world that, in His own words, was good. Everything lived in harmony. We see this in the Messianic Age when all things will be restored. We know before the flood that man and animal were plant eaters, vegetarians, as we read in Job 40. We also read in Job about Behemoth, that it ranks first among the works of God. So we know that God created these mammoth creatures and it was not just folklore. But the question still remains, “Why?” 

We also know that they co-existed with man because Adam named all the animals, and even though we first named the dinosaurs in the 1800’s, Adam gave them a name in the garden. We also know that the animals were grass or plant eaters and they were not violent against man based on what we see in the restored Eden. The end will be like the beginning, and the beginning like the end. Before the flood, man was not a threat to the animals because animals and man only ate grass and plants. But after the flood, God told Noah that they could eat the meat from animals, and at that time man would have been a threat to them, for they became prey. Animals also turned from eating grass to eating each other, though not all. After the flood, the harmony of life ended.

Genesis 9:2-4 tells us, 

The fear and dread of you will fall on all the beasts of the earth, and on all the birds in the sky, on every creature that moves along the ground, and on all the fish in the sea; they are given into your hands. Everything that lives and moves about will be food for you. Just as I gave you the green plants, I now give you everything. But you must not eat meat that has its lifeblood still in it.

Well, one thought regarding the reason that man and animal could have been taller or larger than they are today is this: before the flood, all of creation was pristine—pure air, pure water, and what we would call organic food. Because of this, life’s duration was longer. We know that before the flood Methusalah lived to be 1,000 years old. But as Genesis 6:3 tells us “Then the Lord said, ‘My Spirit shall not strive with man forever, because he also is flesh; nevertheless his days shall be one hundred and twenty years.’” Life drastically changed after the flood, and with the changes we see that throughout history all kinds of animals have become extinct, mainly due to environment and man. There are many reptiles and other species of animals they believe lived during the prehistoric age, but you would not know it because their size is so considerably smaller—like Horseshoe crabs and turtles, Komodo dragons, Shoebill storks, Bactrian camels, Echidnas (which are a cross between a badger, porcupine and an anteater. It lays eggs instead of giving birth), Musk oxen, Chambered Nautilus, White Rhinoceros, and even white polar bears and sturgeons, and so many more. It makes the prehistoric age not so prehistoric.

The Flood

 As we move on, we see a very low point in history. Of course, there have been many low points in history, but not even a thousand years after Eden we hear God expressing regrets. Genesis 6:5-8 tells us, 

The Lord saw how great the wickedness of the human race had become on the earth, and that every inclination of the thoughts of the human heart was only evil all the time. The Lord regretted that He had made human beings on the earth, and His heart was deeply troubled. So the Lord said, “I will wipe from the face of the earth the human race I have created—and with them the animals, the birds and the creatures that move along the ground—for I regret that I have made them.” But Noah found favor in the eyes of the Lord.

Genesis 6:9 tells us that God found one righteous man: “Noah was a righteous man, blameless among the people of his time, and he walked faithfully with God.”

All throughout history, God always had a remnant reserved for Him. Here are just a few Scriptures:

“God sent me (Joseph) before you to preserve for you a remnant in the earth, and to keep you alive by a great deliverance” (Genesis 45:7).

“Yet I will leave 7,000 in Israel, all the knees that have not bowed to Baal and every mouth that has not kissed him” (1 Kings 19:18).

“Isaiah cries out concerning Israel, ‘Though the number of the sons of Israel be like the sand of the sea, it is the remnant that will be saved’” (Romans 9:27).

“In the same way then, there has also come to be at the present time a remnant according to God’s gracious choice” (Romans 11:5).

We see that the Scripture repeats itself in telling us about the corruption on earth. Genesis 6:11-13 says, 

Now the earth was corrupt in God’s sight and was full of violence. God saw how corrupt the earth had become, for all the people on earth had corrupted their ways. So God said to Noah, “I am going to put an end to all people, for the earth is filled with violence because of them. I am surely going to destroy both them and the earth. 

The corruption multiplied after the sin of Eden. Paul tells us this about sin in Romans 5:19-21

For as through the one man’s disobedience the many were made sinners, even so through the obedience of the One the many will be made righteous. The Law came in so that the transgression would increase; but where sin increased, grace abounded all the more, so that, as sin reigned in death, even so grace would reign through righteousness to eternal life through Messiah Yeshua our Lord.

But as we saw, sin also came by way of the fallen angels. God needs to save His remnant, and to do that He needs to make a way for their salvation. 

The Story of the Two Arks: An Open and Shut Case

So we know the story, that God has Noah build an ark. In Genesis 6:14-16, God tells Noah how to make a boat—not just a little boat, but a huge boat called an ark: 

Make for yourself an ark of gopher wood; you shall make the ark with rooms, and shall cover it inside and out with pitch. This is how you shall make it: the length of the ark three hundred cubits, its breadth fifty cubits, and its height thirty cubits. You shall make a window for the ark, and finish it to a cubit from the top; and set the door of the ark in the side of it; you shall make it with lower, second, and third decks.

We see later in history that God tells another man how to build an ark. God tells Moses how to build the Ark of the Covenant. Exodus 25:10-16 says, 

They shall construct an ark of acacia wood two and a half cubits long, and one and a half cubits wide, and one and a half cubits high. You shall overlay it with pure gold, inside and out you shall overlay it, and you shall make a gold molding around it. You shall cast four gold rings for it and fasten them on its four feet, and two rings shall be on one side of it and two rings on the other side of it. You shall make poles of acacia wood and overlay them with gold. You shall put the poles into the rings on the sides of the ark, to carry the ark with them. The poles shall remain in the rings of the ark; they shall not be removed from it. You shall put into the ark the testimony which I shall give you.

The Ark of the Covenant held the Ten Commandments. We forget that the keeping of the commandments is the keeping of the covenant agreement between us and God. But the purpose of the ark was to protect the commandments, just like the archangels protected the Tree of Life and the ark that Noah was building was to protect him and his family and all the animals. 

So why call it an ark? That is because an ark is a place of refuge, a shelter, a place of protection. You see, the Torah (commandments) is the Word of God. Yeshua is the Word of God. Yeshua means salvation. Inside the Ark of the Covenant was salvation. Noah’s ark was also salvation. “Preservation and deliverance from harm and ruin and loss” is the meaning of salvation. The ark protected them from the flood. It was salvation. 

Hebrews 11:7 tells us, “By faith Noah, being warned by God about things not yet seen, in reverence prepared an ark for the salvation of his household, by which he condemned the world, and became an heir of the righteousness which is according to faith.” The ark represents Yeshua the Messiah who is salvation, and the door into the ark also represents Yeshua, for He tells us in John 10:9, “I am the door; if anyone enters through Me, he will be saved, and will go in and out and find pasture.”

It took Noah one-hundred years to build the ark, and at any given moment any person could have repented and would have been able to enter the ark with Noah and his family—but not a single one did. As Psalm 32:6 says, “Therefore, let everyone who is godly pray to You in a time when You may be found; surely in a flood of great waters they will not reach him.” 

1 Peter 3:20 stresses that God patiently waited while Noah built the ark, in case any would repent: “because they formerly did not obey, when God’s patience waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was being prepared, in which a few, that is, eight persons, were brought safely through water.” 

2 Peter 2:5, 9 tell us that Noah was a preacher of righteousness: 

If He did not spare the ancient world, but preserved Noah, a herald of righteousness, with seven others, when He brought a flood upon the world of the ungodly . . . then the Lord knows how to rescue the godly from trials, and to keep the unrighteous under punishment until the day of judgment.

In Genesis 7:1-4, God tells Noah that he is now to enter the ark, for in seven days the flood waters will come. In the Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, we are told that these seven days functioned as one last chance for the people to repent: 

For, behold, I give you space of seven days; if they will be converted, it shall be forgiven them; but if they will not be converted, after a time of days yet seven, I will cause rain to come down upon the earth forty days and forty nights, and will destroy all bodies of man and of beast upon the earth.

Similarly, the Pirkei de Rabbi Eliezer says that the purpose of the building of the ark (a lengthy project) was to increase the possibility for repentance: “Rabbi Tachanah said: Noah made the ark during fifty-two years, so that they should repent of their ways. But they did not repent.” The people didn’t listen, and only Noah’s immediate family was saved. As Yeshua says, 

In the days before the flood, people were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, up to the day Noah entered the ark. And they were oblivious, until the flood came and swept them all away. So will it be at the coming of the Son of Man. (Matthew 24:38-39)

Genesis 7:16 tells us, “Those that entered, male and female of all flesh, entered as God had commanded him; and the Lord closed it behind him.”

It is interesting that God shut the door and not Noah, but when we see the parables of Yeshua, who is the door, you may understand why.

Luke 13:23-24 says, “And someone said to Him, ‘Lord, are there just a few who are being saved?’ And He said to them, ‘Strive to enter through the narrow door; for many, I tell you, will seek to enter and will not be able.’”

Matthew 25:7-13 tells us this: 

Then all the virgins woke up and trimmed their lamps. The foolish ones said to the wise, “Give us some of your oil; our lamps are going out.” 

“No,” they replied, “there may not be enough for both us and you. Instead, go to those who sell oil and buy some for yourselves.” But while they were on their way to buy the oil, the bridegroom arrived. The virgins who were ready went in with him to the wedding banquet. And the door was shut. Later the others also came. “Lord, Lord,” they said, “open the door for us!” But he replied, “Truly I tell you, I don’t know you.” Therefore keep watch, because you do not know the day or the hour.

Matthew 24:37-39 says, 

But as the days of Noah were, so shall also the coming of the Son of Man be. For as in the days that were before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noah entered into the ark, and knew not until the flood came, and took them all away; so shall also the coming of the Son of Man be.

Genesis 6:17-18 goes on to tell us, 

Behold, I, even I am bringing the flood of water upon the earth, to destroy all flesh in which is the breath of life, from under heaven; everything that is on the earth shall perish. But I will establish My covenant with you; and you shall enter the ark.

So you have to ask yourself, “Why did God totally destroy His creation?” We know that all He had to do was strike down those who were corrupt. But to destroy all the animals and the birds and even the trees? Why? Well, the answer is simple: mikvah!

The Mikvah

What is a mikvah? For one, the mikvah must be a natural flow of water. The flood certainly fits that description. In order to conform to Jewish law, a mikvah must contain 40 seahs of water. This parallels the 40 days/nights that the rain fell. 

We may better know the term as “baptism.” A person would immerse himself in a mikvah for several different reasons. The mikvah was symbolic of a spiritual cleansing. 1 Peter 3:18-22 tells us this:

For Messiah also died for sins once for all, the just for the unjust, so that He might bring us to God, having been put to death in the flesh, but made alive in the spirit; in which also He went and made proclamation to the spirits now in prison, who once were disobedient, when the patience of God kept waiting in the days of Noah, during the construction of the ark, in which a few, that is, eight persons, were brought safely through the water. Corresponding to that, baptism now saves you—not the removal of dirt from the flesh, but an appeal to God for a good conscience—through the resurrection of Messiah Yeshua, who is at the right hand of God, having gone into heaven, after angels and authorities and powers had been subjected to Him.

Romans 6:1-4 tells us this: 

What shall we say then? Are we to continue in sin so that grace may increase? May it never be! How shall we who died to sin still live in it? Or do you not know that all of us who have been baptized into Messiah Yeshua have been baptized into His death? Therefore we have been buried with Him through baptism into death, so that as Messiah was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we too might walk in newness of life.

So we see that with spiritual cleansing comes a clear conscience and newness of life, spiritually being born again. Of course, the mikvah is only a symbol of this, only because it represents the womb and the grave. 

So that brings us to the next reason for the mikvah.

Symbolically, when Moses and the people went into the water, even though they crossed on dry ground, it was like a dying experience. But when they came out of the waters, it was like rising from the dead. 

So what does this have to do with anything? Well, death is considered unclean because death brings about decay, and decay is unclean. When God directed Moses about the Passover, He told him not to keep any till morning, as Exodus 12:10 tells us, “And you shall not leave any of it over until morning, but whatever is left of it until morning, you shall burn with fire.”

The people were to be in a state of holiness, for God Himself was leading Israel out of Egypt. Even in the Haggadah (the Passover service) the people acknowledge that it was God and not an angel who brought Israel out of Egypt. There are too many Torah laws about clean and unclean to get into them now, regarding the sanctuary and God ‘s presence, but death is a big one. According to the Torah, anyone who touches a corpse or is near a corpse is considered ritually unclean. One had to perform a mikvah to be considered clean. Once again, this was symbolic. 

Here are a few Scriptures which explain the association between uncleanness and touching the dead. 

Numbers 19:11 says, “If you touch a dead body, you will be unclean for seven days.”

Numbers 19:14 tells us, “If someone dies in a tent while you are there, you will be unclean for seven days. And anyone who later enters the tent will also be unclean.”

Also in Numbers 19:16, “If you touch the body of someone who was killed or who died of old age, or if you touch a human bone or a grave, you will be unclean for seven days.”

And Leviticus 21:11-12 says of the High Priest, 

He must not enter a place where there is a dead body. He must not make himself unclean, even for his father or mother, nor leave the sanctuary of his God or desecrate it, because he has been dedicated by the anointing oil of his God. I am the Lord.

We know that the garden became unclean after the sin of Adam and Eve because sin brings death. God could no longer walk with Adam and Eve in the cool of the evening. The garden was a place were they ministered to God, just like in the sanctuary (the Holy of Holies) within the Tent of Meeting the priests ministered to God. How important it is for our sanctuary, the place where we meet with God, to remain holy. 

The bottom line is that the world needed to be cleansed, and the flood was the way God was going to bring about that cleansing. God created life. That life died spiritually through sin. God needed to bring about a renewal. Creation brought about life and sin brought about death, and so going through a mikvah would bring about cleansing, a spiritual rebirth. Like Moses and the people who went into the water and were symbolically dead, now after the flood they would reemerge as clean and new and alive. God wanted once again to have a people that He could walk with. 


Genesis 6:18-21 says, 

But I will establish My covenant with you; and you shall enter the ark—you and your sons and your wife, and your sons’ wives with you. And of every living thing of all flesh, you shall bring two of every kind into the ark, to keep them alive with you; they shall be male and female. Of the birds after their kind, and of the animals after their kind, of every creeping thing of the ground after its kind, two of every kind will come to you to keep them alive. As for you, take for yourself some of all food which is edible, and gather it to yourself; and it shall be for food for you and for them.

Genesis 7:1-3 says, 

Then the Lord said to Noah, “Enter the ark, you and all your household, for you alone I have seen to be righteous before Me in this time. You shall take with you of every clean animal by sevens, a male and his female; and of the animals that are not clean two, a male and his female; also of the birds of the sky, by sevens, male and female, to keep offspring alive on the face of all the earth.”

Why the discrepancy? In Genesis 6, God was speaking in general about every animal, bringing them two by two; but in Genesis 7, God was speaking about how the clean animals should be gathered by sevens, because the clean animals were for sacrifices. Again we see that the people had to have had some knowledge of the sacrificial laws.

But what about these animals? How did every kind of animal know to come?

It is believed that there were 35,000 species of animals on the ark. A study done by the University of Leicester calculated that according to the dimensions of the ark, it could hold 70,000 animals. It would seem impossible for Noah to gather so many animals. The rabbis believed that God sent angels to gather together the animals. The Pirkei de Rabbi Eliezer preserves this tradition: 

Noah said to the Holy One, blessed be He: “Sovereign of all the world! Have I then the strength to collect them unto me to the ark?” The angels appointed over each kind went down and gathered them, and with them all their food unto him to the ark.

I have my own theory, and that is this: when we read about Eden, we know that God brought every animal before Adam to name, so we know that every animal lived in the garden. When Adam and Eve were expelled from the garden, the Scriptures never say anything about the animals. Could it be that these same animals were the animals that came to Noah? The mystery behind the Garden of Eden is not fully understood. We know that there could not have been time like the rest of the world in the garden, and we see that most likely there was no death in the garden, so these would have been the same animals that Adam and Eve lived among. If the garden was in Israel (Jerusalem), then it would have been straight across from where the ark was. God’s angels could have led these animals right to Noah. 

The docile behavior of the animals on the ark is a glimpse of the peace which will be normal in the Messianic Age. As it says in Isaiah 11:6, “The wolf shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the young goat, and the calf and the lion and the fattened calf together; and a little child shall lead them.” This is what happened on the ark, and this is how it will be once again when Yeshua returns and establishes His Kingdom. 

So, this causes us to question: if Adam and Eve were created on the sixth day, and then God rested on the seventh day, and if a day is like a thousand years to God, then we must assume that there was no time in the garden—at least not like we know it, because when Adam and Eve were expelled from the garden they would have been over one-thousand years old when they left Eden, and Adam would have been almost two-thousand years old when he died. But if while they were in the garden there were people living outside of the garden, where life was going on normally from the sixth day of creation, then that would change a lot of our thinking.

Or maybe before the flood, time was different. We know time as sixty seconds equals a minute, and sixty minutes equals an hour, and twenty-four hours equals a day—but was it always this way? We do know that the earth’s orbit has changed over time. The gravitational pull of the planets, like Jupiter, Mars and Venus, has affected the earth. We have had shifting and axial tilts and we have gone from circular to elliptical paths over the millennia. We also know that the planets themselves have moved over the history of creation. We also know that moons have come and gone, or even were added over time. We know that when the flood came, it came with such a violent eruption of the earth’s core, and the dome that was covering the earth was all broken up. 

Hosea writes this in Hosea 9:5-6: 

The Lord God of hosts, the One who touches the land so that it melts, and all those who dwell in it mourn, and all of it rises up like the Nile and subsides like the Nile of Egypt; the One who builds His upper chambers in the heavens and has founded His vaulted dome over the earth, He who calls for the waters of the sea and pours them out on the face of the earth, the Lord is His name.

It was this dome over the earth that was broken, and that allowed the rain to pour out over the earth. 

And again in Psalm 18:11, “He made darkness His covering, His canopy around Him, thick clouds dark with water.” Some creation scientists believe that this dome was a vapor or ice canopy that collapsed during the flood, becoming another source of the water which covered the earth. 

You must ask yourself: if the planets all shifted during the flood, could the water that was in the universe be the rain that fell to earth?

Let’s look at other scriptures that tell us about God when He is angry. Psalm 18:3-18 says,

I call upon the Lord, who is worthy to be praised, and I am saved from my enemies. The cords of death encompassed me, and the torrents of ungodliness terrified me. The cords of Sheol surrounded me; the snares of death confronted me. In my distress I called upon the Lord, and cried to my God for help; He heard my voice out of His temple, and my cry for help before Him came into His ears. Then the earth shook and quaked; and the foundations of the mountains were trembling and were shaken, because He was angry. Smoke went up out of His nostrils, and fire from His mouth devoured; coals were kindled by it. He bowed the heavens also, and came down with thick darkness under His feet. He rode upon a cherub and flew; and He sped upon the wings of the wind. He made darkness His hiding place, His canopy around Him, darkness of waters, thick clouds of the skies. From the brightness before Him passed His thick clouds, hailstones and coals of fire. The Lord also thundered in the heavens, and the Most High uttered His voice, hailstones and coals of fire. He sent out His arrows, and scattered them, and lightning flashes in abundance, and routed them. Then the channels of water appeared, and the foundations of the world were laid bare at Your rebuke, O Lord, at the blast of the breath of Your nostrils. He sent from on high, He took me; He drew me out of many waters. He delivered me from my strong enemy, and from those who hated me, for they were too mighty for me. They confronted me in the day of my calamity, but the Lord was my stay.

Matthew 27: 50-54 tells us what happened when Yeshua died. 

And Yeshua cried out again with a loud voice, and yielded up His spirit. And behold, the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom; and the earth shook and the rocks were split. The tombs were opened, and many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep were raised; and coming out of the tombs after His resurrection they entered the holy city and appeared to many. Now the centurion, and those who were with him keeping guard over Yeshua, when they saw the earthquake and the things that were happening, became very frightened and said, “Truly this was the Son of God!”

Genesis 7:17-24 goes on to say, 

Then the flood came upon the earth for forty days, and the water increased and lifted up the ark, so that it rose above the earth. The water prevailed and increased greatly upon the earth, and the ark floated on the surface of the water. The water prevailed more and more upon the earth, so that all the high mountains everywhere under the heavens were covered. The water prevailed fifteen cubits higher, and the mountains were covered. All flesh that moved on the earth perished, birds and cattle and beasts and every swarming thing that swarms upon the earth, and all mankind; of all that was on the dry land, all in whose nostrils was the breath of the spirit of life, died. Thus He blotted out every living thing that was upon the face of the land, from man to animals to creeping things and to birds of the sky, and they were blotted out from the earth; and only Noah was left, together with those that were with him in the ark. The water prevailed upon the earth one hundred and fifty days.

The earth was now going through a death like none other. But in that ark, we see something—we see now Noah and his wife, who were like Adam and Eve, and the ark, like the Garden of Eden with all the animals around them. But also, instead of Cain and Abel and Seth who continued on after the garden, we now see Shem, Ham, and Japheth who continue on after the flood. Through the flood, God recreated as He had created in the beginning., as Genesis 1:2 tells us that there was chaos and the water covered the earth. 

Genesis 8:1-5 continues, 

But God remembered Noah and all the beasts and all the cattle that were with him in the ark; and God caused a wind to pass over the earth, and the water subsided. Also the fountains of the deep and the floodgates of the sky were closed, and the rain from the sky was restrained; and the water receded steadily from the earth, and at the end of one hundred and fifty days the water decreased. In the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, the ark rested upon the mountains of Ararat. The water decreased steadily until the tenth month; in the tenth month, on the first day of the month, the tops of the mountains became visible.

We see another time when people were in a boat and a storm came up. Mark 4:35-41 tells us: 

On that day, when evening came, He said to them, “Let us go over to the other side.” Leaving the crowd, they took Him along with them in the boat, just as He was; and other boats were with Him. And there arose a fierce gale of wind, and the waves were breaking over the boat so much that the boat was already filling up. Yeshua Himself was in the stern, asleep on the cushion; and they woke Him and said to Him, “Teacher, do You not care that we are perishing?” And He got up and rebuked the wind and said to the sea, “Hush, be still.” And the wind died down and it became perfectly calm. And He said to them, “Why are you afraid? Do you still have no faith?” They became very much afraid and said to one another, “Who then is this, that even the wind and the sea obey Him?”

Do you think that there may have been times when Noah felt this way?

In our times of trials and tribulations, God provides an ark of safety for us, as Psalm 91:1-4 tells us, 

He who dwells in the shelter of the Most High will abide in the shadow of the Almighty. I will say to the Lord, “My refuge and my fortress, my God, in whom I trust!” For it is He who delivers you from the snare of the trapper and from the deadly pestilence. He will cover you with His pinions, and under His wings you may seek refuge; His faithfulness is a shield and bulwark.

Isaiah 43:2-5a says,

When you pass through the waters, I will be with you; and through the rivers, they will not overflow you. When you walk through the fire, you will not be scorched, nor will the flame burn you. For I am the Lord your God, the Holy One of Israel, your Savior; I have given Egypt as your ransom, Cush and Seba in your place. Since you are precious in My sight, since you are honored and I love you, I will give other men in your place and other peoples in exchange for your life. Do not fear, for I am with you.

Psalm 93 reminds us that God is in control. 

The Lord reigns, He is clothed with majesty; the Lord has clothed and girded Himself with strength; indeed, the world is firmly established, it will not be moved. Your throne is established from of old; You are from everlasting. The floods have lifted up, O Lord, the floods have lifted up their voice, the floods lift up their pounding waves. More than the sounds of many waters, than the mighty breakers of the sea, the Lord on high is mighty. Your testimonies are fully confirmed; holiness befits Your house, O Lord, forevermore.


The ark was also a sukkah. The word sukkah is translated as “tabernacle” or “a booth,” a temporary dwelling. The people in the wilderness lived in booths (tents), sukkahs. We see that at the time of the flood it rained forty days and forty nights. We also see that Moses ascended Mount Sinai for forty days and forty nights when he received the Ten Commandments the second time. This happened after the sin of the golden calf when Moses broke the tablets in anger. The people needed atonement for this sin, and Yom Kippur is the Day of Atonement. Today we prepare forty days before Yom Kippur. This represents those days Moses spent on Mount Sinai and his descending with the second set of tablets, representing God’s forgiveness and a second chance. 

In the days of the flood, those who were in that ark—that sukkah, that temporary dwelling—were also receiving forgiveness and a second chance. The festival Sukkot follows those days to represent God’s faithfulness, His protection in the wilderness, and His provisions. Right after Moses came down the mountain, they began to build the Tabernacle (mishkan). The sukkah reminds us of the clouds of God’s glory that surrounded Israel on their journey to the Promised Land. The ark was also covered by clouds, but in those clouds came the glory of God.

The clouds also represent the chuppah, the wedding canopy. Isaiah writes in Isaiah 4:5-6

Then the Lord will create over all of Mount Zion and over those who assemble there a cloud of smoke by day and a glow of flaming fire by night; over everything the glory will be a canopy. It will be a shelter and shade from the heat of the day, and a refuge and hiding place from the storm and rain.

We know that the ark was a shelter. We also know that a wedding is a making of a covenant. We see that God also makes a covenant with Noah, because now he and his family will continue what God had started with His creation. 

Genesis 9:8-11 says, 

Then God said to Noah and to his sons with him: “I now establish My covenant with you and with your descendants after you and with every living creature that was with you—the birds, the livestock and all the wild animals, all those that came out of the ark with you—every living creature on earth. I establish My covenant with you: Never again will all life be destroyed by the waters of a flood; never again will there be a flood to destroy the earth.”

Every covenant has a sign. In a marriage it is a ring. So too with this covenant, as Genesis 9:12-17 says, 

God said, “This is the sign of the covenant which I am making between Me and you and every living creature that is with you, for all successive generations; I set My bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a sign of a covenant between Me and the earth. It shall come about, when I bring a cloud over the earth, that the bow will be seen in the cloud, and I will remember My covenant, which is between Me and you and every living creature of all flesh; and never again shall the water become a flood to destroy all flesh. When the bow is in the cloud, then I will look upon it, to remember the everlasting covenant between God and every living creature of all flesh that is on the earth.” And God said to Noah, “This is the sign of the covenant which I have established between Me and all flesh that is on the earth.”

2 Samuel 22:10-17 says, 

He bowed the heavens and came down; thick darkness was under His feet. He rode on a cherub and flew; He was seen on the wings of the wind. He made darkness around Him His canopy, thick clouds, a gathering of water. Out of the brightness before Him coals of fire flamed forth. The LORD thundered from heaven, and the Most High uttered His voice. And He sent out arrows and scattered them; lightning, and routed them. Then the channels of the sea were seen; the foundations of the world were laid bare, at the rebuke of the LORD, at the blast of the breath of His nostrils. He sent from on high, He took me; He drew me out of many waters.

Like the cloud, the rain also represented the feast of Sukkot. The rain represented the Holy Spirit. We saw at the time of creation that the Holy Spirit was hovering over the waters. During the Sukkot, there was a ceremony called “the drawing out of water,” or “the water-drawing ceremony.” In the Talmud, we read, “Why is the name of it called the drawing out of water? Because of the pouring out of the Holy Spirit, according to what is said, ‘With joy shall ye draw out the wells of salvation.’” 

Sukkot teaches us that in the Messianic Era, the earth will experience the greatest outpouring of the Holy Spirit. Joel 2:23 tells us this, “So rejoice, O sons of Zion, and be glad in the Lord your God; for He has given you the early rain for your vindication. And He has poured down for you the rain, the early and latter rain as before.” 

Isaiah 12:3 tells us, “Therefore you will joyously draw water from the springs of salvation.” 

We see Yeshua coming to the feast on the last day. This day is called the Great Hosanna or Hoshana Rabbah, the Great Salvation. How appropriate that Yeshua, our Great Salvation, should come on this day—Yeshua, who had this conversation with the woman in John 4:7-14

There came a woman of Samaria to draw water. Yeshua said to her, “Give Me a drink.” For His disciples had gone away into the city to buy food. Therefore the Samaritan woman said to Him, “How is it that You, being a Jew, ask me for a drink since I am a Samaritan woman?” (For Jews have no dealings with Samaritans.) Yeshua answered and said to her, “If you knew the gift of God, and who it is who says to you, ‘Give Me a drink,’ you would have asked Him, and He would have given you living water.” She said to Him, “Sir, You have nothing to draw with and the well is deep; where then do You get that living water? You are not greater than our father Jacob, are You, who gave us the well, and drank of it himself and his sons and his cattle?” Yeshua answered and said to her, “Everyone who drinks of this water will thirst again; but whoever drinks of the water that I will give him shall never thirst; but the water that I will give him will become in him a well of water springing up to eternal life.”

Another significance of Sukkot is that it is considered the true time of the birth of Yeshua. 

When Noah entered the ark of salvation and the clouds came and poured out the rain of the Holy Spirit, God, Yeshua, and the Holy Spirit were there in this remaking of His creation. 

Sukkot is also called the Feast of the Ingathering. We see that this is what God did. He gathered up His remnant, including all of the animals. One day God will again gather up His people. Hosea 6:3 tells us this, “So let us know, let us press on to know the Lord. His going forth is as certain as the dawn; and He will come to us like the rain, like the spring rain watering the earth.”

Genesis 8:6-12 continues, 

Then it came about at the end of forty days, that Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made; and he sent out a raven, and it flew here and there until the water was dried up from the earth. Then he sent out a dove from him, to see if the water was abated from the face of the land; but the dove found no resting place for the sole of her foot, so she returned to him into the ark, for the water was on the surface of all the earth. Then he put out his hand and took her, and brought her into the ark to himself. So he waited yet another seven days; and again he sent out the dove from the ark. The dove came to him toward evening, and behold, in her beak was a freshly picked olive leaf. So Noah knew that the water was abated from the earth. Then he waited yet another seven days, and sent out the dove; but she did not return to him again.

The earth was now in its rebirth, and we see once again the symbol of the Holy Spirit hovering over the waters. But the earth never returned to its original state.

Genesis 8:20-22 continues, 

Then Noah built an altar to the Lord, and took of every clean animal and of every clean bird and offered burnt offerings on the altar. The Lord smelled the soothing aroma; and the Lord said to Himself, “I will never again curse the ground on account of man, for the intent of man’s heart is evil from his youth; and I will never again destroy every living thing, as I have done. While the earth remains, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease.”

The earth had its mikvah, and it had its rebirth, and God now shows mercy upon the earth. He makes a covenant with Noah that is still in effect today, because God is a covenant-keeping God. He keeps His word to man.

The Noahide Laws

Genesis 9:1-7 goes on to tell us about what we call the Noahide laws. 

And God blessed Noah and his sons and said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth. The fear of you and the terror of you will be on every beast of the earth and on every bird of the sky; with everything that creeps on the ground, and all the fish of the sea, into your hand they are given. Every moving thing that is alive shall be food for you; I give all to you, as I gave the green plant. Only you shall not eat flesh with its life, that is, its blood. Surely I will require your lifeblood; from every beast I will require it. And from every man, from every man’s brother I will require the life of man. Whoever sheds man’s blood, By man his blood shall be shed, For in the image of God He made man. As for you, be fruitful and multiply; Populate the earth abundantly and multiply in it.”

We see here that God passes on these seven laws, that were originally given to Adam, to Noah. They are:

1. Establish laws.

2. Don’t curse God.

3. Do not practice idolatry.

4. Do not engage in illicit sexuality.

5. Do not participate in bloodshed.

6. Do not rob.

7. Do not eat flesh from a living animal.

These were the terms of the covenant which God was now making with Noah and his descendants. God declared that He would never again flood the world, and for their part Noah and his descendants would abide by a particular set of laws. The rabbis thought of these as universal laws that were incumbent on all of humanity, as opposed to the Torah which they felt was exclusively for God’s chosen people. They reasoned that there must be a standard which the other peoples are judged by, otherwise, as Paul says (understood in the general sense), “Where there is no law there is no transgression.” There must have been some universal law that, for example, the Canaanites were judged by. One of the rabbis referred to the punishment of the Canaanites in Deuteronomy 18:9-12 and deduced, “Evidently, the Canaanites were punished for these practices; and since God would not have punished them for an action unless He first prohibited it, these practices are clearly prohibited to gentiles” (b. Sanhedrin 56b). Since all of humanity is descended from Noah, and these are the laws designated for the Gentiles, this set of laws was termed the Noahide laws. 

It’s possible that an early tradition of the Noahide laws is preserved in the book of Jubilees. Some time after the flood ends and Noah’s sons have born children of their own, Noah observes that they are not walking according to righteousness, so he begins to instruct them: 

And in the twenty-eighth jubilee Noah began to enjoin upon his sons’ sons the ordinances and commandments, and all the judgments that he knew, and he exhorted his sons to observe righteousness, and to cover the shame of their flesh, and to bless their Creator, and honor father and mother, and love their neighbor, and guard their souls from fornication and uncleanness and all iniquity. . . . “There shall be no blood seen upon you of all the blood there shall be all the days in which ye have killed any beasts or cattle or whatever flies upon the earth, and work ye a good work to your souls by covering that which has been shed on the face of the earth. And ye shall not be like him who eats with blood, but guard yourselves that none may eat blood before you: cover the blood, for thus have I been commanded to testify to you and your children, together with all flesh.” (Jubilees 7:20, 30-31) 

Additionally, according to this passage Noah also teaches his grandchildren about the proper way to give first-fruit offerings, passing on the instructions which he received from Enoch. 

This list of commandments preserved in Jubilees is different from the commands which the rabbis would later determine had been given to Noah, the seven commands which we listed above. The rabbis looked into the Scriptures and discovered seven laws which Gentiles (called “sons of Noah”) were obliged to follow. Two of these commandments were given in Genesis 9 (do not eat meat with the blood and establish courts of justice), and the others were drawn from other passages of Scripture: “The children of Noah were admonished regarding seven religious duties: setting up courts of justice, idolatry, blasphemy, fornication, murder, thievery, and concerning a limb cut from a living beast” (t. Avodah Zarah 8:4-6).

Although there was general agreement about these seven laws, there was also some dispute over whether there were other laws in addition to these seven: 

The Sages taught in a baraita: The descendants of Noah, i.e., all of humanity, were commanded to observe seven mitzvot [commandments]: The mitzvah of establishing courts of judgment; and the prohibition against cursing the name of God; and the prohibition of idol worship; and the prohibition against forbidden sexual relations; and the prohibition of bloodshed; and the prohibition of robbery; and the prohibition against eating a limb from a living animal. Rabbi Hananya ben Gamla says: The descendants of Noah are also commanded concerning the prohibition against consuming the blood from a living animal. Rabbi Hideka says: They are also commanded concerning castration, i.e., they are prohibited to castrate any living animal. Rabbi Shimon says: They are also commanded concerning the prohibition against engaging in sorcery. (b. Sanhedrin 56a-b)

In practice, these seven laws function more like general categories than as precise laws. A medieval explanation of the Torah and the rabbinic commentaries makes this point explicit: 

And do not err, my son, with this well-known tally of the seven commandments of the Noahides mentioned in the Talmud (Sanhedrin 56b); as truthfully these seven are [only] like general principles, but they have many details. (Sefer HaChinuch 416)

In fact, these seven commandments, once the details are fleshed out, become more than 60 precise commands.

The command concerning idolatry, in addition to its traditional definition of worshiping other gods or any created thing, also includes the prohibition of witchcraft and magic practices. This command also forbids the worship of any physical representations of God. 

“Blasphemy” encompasses the prohibition on taking the Lord’s name in vain (swearing false oaths). The rabbis determined that this applies to non-Jews based on the book of Job: Job is a non-Jew, and yet he knows that it would be a sin to blaspheme God. “His wife said to him, ‘Are you still maintaining your integrity? Curse God and die!’ He replied, ‘You are talking like a foolish woman. Shall we accept good from God, and not trouble?’ In all this, Job did not sin in what he said” (Job 2:9-10).

The prohibition of murder is based on the command to Noah in Genesis 9:6, “Whoever sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed, for God made man in His own image.” Murder is also condemned, as we have seen, after Cain kills his brother Abel. This command also prohibits gossip, which the Torah says is equivalent to making an attempt on your neighbor’s life: “You shall not go about as a slanderer among your people, and you are not to act against the life of your neighbor; I am the LORD” (Leviticus 19:16).

What exactly qualified as fornication for Gentiles was debated among the rabbis. Some rabbis felt that Gentiles were obligated to observe all of the Torah’s laws governing sexual relationships. On the other hand, Maimonides, for example, said that the Noahide laws forbid six sexual relationships: with one’s mother, father’s wife, maternal sister, a married woman, an individual of the same sex, or an animal.

The prohibition of theft additionally includes all of the laws of the Torah which describe taking advantage of another person or cheating them in any way. 

The prohibition regarding a limb cut from a living beast refers to eating meat without cooking it, or eating meat without first draining the blood as God commands Noah in Genesis 9:3-4, “Every moving thing that lives shall be food for you. And as I gave you the green plants, I give you everything. But you shall not eat flesh with its life, that is, its blood.” The laws of slaughter are not as strict for Gentiles according to the Torah, since in Deuteronomy 14:21 a Gentile sojourner is not forbidden from consuming meat from an animal which died a natural death (rather than being slaughtered properly). An additional implication of this rule is that one should not be cruel to animals.

The final command is to establish courts of justice. This follows from Genesis 9:6, which decrees retributive justice for murderers. A surface reading would accommodate vigilante justice, so the rabbis determined that this requires a judicial system. Additionally, of necessity there must be some kind of legal system to enforce the other six laws, making it necessary to establish courts of justice.

Maimonides said, 

Anyone who accepts upon himself the fulfillment of these seven mitzvot [commandments] and is precise in their observance is considered one of “the pious among the gentiles” and will merit a share in the world to come. This applies only when he accepts them and fulfills them because the Holy One, blessed be He, commanded them in the Torah and informed us through Moses, our teacher, that Noah’s descendants had been commanded to fulfill them previously. However, if he fulfills them out of intellectual conviction, he is not a resident alien, nor of “the pious among the gentiles,” nor of their wise men.” (Melachim uMilchamot 8:11) 

In other words, Maimonides is saying that the outward practice of these laws would be of no benefit to the son of Noah if they obeyed for the wrong reasons. According to Maimonides, the only obedience which is acceptable is that which comes from a pure heart which loves God.

Some scholars understand the decision of the Jerusalem Council in Acts 15 to be a variant form of the Noahide commandments. This passage records the deliberation of James and the other apostles and elders regarding the question of whether Gentiles need to be circumcised, that is, convert to Judaism, in order to be saved. As part of his concluding statement, James says the following: 

Therefore my judgment is that we should not trouble those of the Gentiles who turn to God, but should write to them to abstain from the things polluted by idols, and from sexual immorality, and from what has been strangled, and from blood. (Acts 15:19-20)

There are definitely some similarities here. It is a subset of rules applied specifically to Gentiles. The rules themselves are very similar, although there are only four in this list, versus the seven rules in the list developed by the rabbis. As mentioned earlier, some scholars draw a strong connection between the two ideas. The Jewish Encyclopedia says, 

On the initiative of Peter, and of James, the head of the Jerusalem church, it was agreed that acceptance of the Noachian Laws—namely, regarding avoidance of idolatry, fornication, and the eating of flesh cut from a living animal—should be demanded of the heathen desirous of entering the Church. 

Others believe that the four commandments in Acts 15 go beyond the universal Noahide commandments and advocate a stricter form of the commandments for Gentile believers in the Body of Messiah. A closer look reveals that the commandments given by the Jerusalem Council seem to be modeled after Leviticus 17-18 rather than Genesis 9

The first rule given by the Jerusalem Council is that gentiles are to abstain from things sacrificed to idols. We find here a connection to Leviticus 17:7-9, which forbids both the Israelites and the Gentiles who live among them from practicing idolatry: 

So they shall no more sacrifice their sacrifices to goat demons, after whom they whore. This shall be a statute forever for them throughout their generations. And you shall say to them, “Any one of the house of Israel, or of the strangers who sojourn among them, who offers a burnt offering or sacrifice and does not bring it to the entrance of the tent of meeting to offer it to the Lord, that man shall be cut off from his people.”

The rule set forth by the Jerusalem Council goes beyond the mere forsaking of idolatry and makes consumption of food sacrificed to idols unlawful. This is something that the Israelites were specifically commanded not to do: “Do not make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land, for when they prostitute themselves to their gods and sacrifice to them, they will invite you, and you will eat their sacrifices” (Exodus 34:15).

A second rule given by James and the elders is to abstain from blood. This commandment is based on Leviticus 17:10: “If any one of the house of Israel or of the strangers who sojourn among them eats any blood, I will set my face against that person who eats blood and will cut him off from among his people.” Again we see that the Torah commanded Gentiles who were living among Israel to abstain from consuming blood. 

The third rule decided upon by the meeting at Jerusalem was that Gentiles must abstain from things strangled. In other words, they were now being held to a higher standard of slaughtering meat. This is based on Leviticus 17:13: “Any one also of the people of Israel, or of the strangers who sojourn among them, who takes in hunting any beast or bird that may be eaten shall pour out its blood and cover it with earth.” In order for meat to be eaten, the animal must be slaughtered in such a way that the blood is drained out. This means the Gentile believers are now being held to this Biblical standard of ritual slaughter.

Lastly we have the command to abstain from fornication. A long list of unlawful sexual relationships is listed in Leviticus 18, and the chapter is summed up in verse 26: “But you shall keep my statutes and my rules and do none of these abominations, either the native or the stranger who sojourns among you.” 

Thus the four apostolic laws seem to be an additional requirement on top of the Noahide laws, which were already required of Gentiles in the days of the apostles. These specific observances which they advocated in Acts 15 seem to be based on the laws given in the Torah which regulated the behavior of Gentiles who wished to join themselves to the Israelites. The rules given by James and the elders would functionally drive a wedge between the Gentile believers and the pagan world in which they lived, while facilitating relationships between Gentile believers and observant Jewish believers. It would create an atmosphere where they could eat together and live together as the Body of Messiah. It would also set the Gentiles on the path toward Torah-obedience.

In mainstream Judaism, evangelism of Gentiles has not been a common practice. If a Gentile expresses to them a desire to become a Noahide, they will happily accept this but rarely openly encourage it. There have been some changes to this fairly recently. There is a movement within Orthodox Judaism known as Hasidism, and the most famous Hasidic group is called Chabad. A prominent leader of Chabad Hasidism, Menachem Mendel Schneerson, began a campaign to actively evangelize to Gentiles in the hope of getting them to observe the Noahide laws. He has said, “It is now the time for Jewish people to fulfill their Torah obligation to reach out to Gentiles, to encourage them to follow the Seven Mitzvot.” For Schneerson, this campaign was, among other aims, an attempt to bring humanity to a higher level of spirituality in preparation for the coming of the Messiah. In his own words, “We are so close to the Messianic Era, that now is the most appropriate time to prepare the world and make it fitting for Moshiach’s coming through Gentiles following their 7 Mitzvot.”

Returning to Genesis, we see that life now is able to go on despite its many flaws, but God has been faithful in keeping His covenant. When we see the rainbow in the sky it should encourage us that God is still with us, and He is faithful. Over the years this sign of the covenant with the world has been used for other reasons, and this is as much as a mockery of God as saying that we evolved from animals. The things of God are holy and we must keep them holy, for they represent Him. 

The Tower of Babel

So God laid down His bow and said that He would never destroy the earth again by a flood. Life went on after the flood, and so did the fall of man. But God shows Himself as a faithful covenant-keeping God. He has kept His word and His covenants throughout every generation. What we will continue to see in Genesis is that God may not bring about total destruction, but He still deals with sin. 

Genesis 11:1-9 tells us this: 

Now the whole earth used the same language and the same words. It came about as they journeyed east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there. They said to one another, “Come, let us make bricks and burn them thoroughly.” And they used brick for stone, and they used tar for mortar. They said, “Come, let us build for ourselves a city, and a tower whose top will reach into heaven, and let us make for ourselves a name, otherwise we will be scattered abroad over the face of the whole earth.” The Lord came down to see the city and the tower which the sons of men had built. The Lord said, “Behold, they are one people, and they all have the same language. And this is what they began to do, and now nothing which they purpose to do will be impossible for them. Come, let Us go down and there confuse their language, so that they will not understand one another’s speech.” So the Lord scattered them abroad from there over the face of the whole earth; and they stopped building the city. Therefore its name was called Babel, because there the Lord confused the language of the whole earth; and from there the Lord scattered them abroad over the face of the whole earth.

The Tower of Babel was located in Babylon in the country today known as Iraq in the city we call Baghdad. For this reason, the rabbis connected the Tower of Babel to the Biblical character of Nimrod. In Genesis 10:10 we are told of Nimrod, “The beginning of his kingdom was Babel and Erech and Accad and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.” Since Nimrod was king of Shinar, they suggest that he led the building of the tower. 

Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer records the words of Rabbi Akiva, who says of the builders of the tower: “They cast off the Kingdom of Heaven from themselves, and appointed Nimrod king over themselves” (Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer 24).

Josephus also preserves this tradition: 

Now it was Nimrod who excited them to such an affront and contempt of God. He was the grandson of Ham, the son of Noah, a bold man, and of great strength of hand. He persuaded them not to ascribe it to God as if it was through his means they were happy, but to believe that it was their own courage which procured that happiness. He also gradually changed the government into tyranny, seeing no other way of turning men from the fear of God, but to bring them into a constant dependence upon his power. He also said he would be revenged on God, if he should have a mind to drown the world again; for that he would build a tower too high for the waters to be able to reach! and that he would avenge himself on God for destroying their forefathers! (Antiquities of the Jews, Book 1, 4:2). 

Nimrod had a bad reputation even divorced from these traditions. In Hebrew his name means “we will rebel.” Nimrod was interpreted as a person opposed to God mainly because of Genesis 10:9. This verse says that Nimrod was, “a mighty hunter before the Lord.” However, in Hebrew the word translated as “before”, if literally translated, would mean “in the face of”, signifying opposition. Regarding the description of Nimrod as a mighty hunter, Rashi says that Nimrod hunted for men’s souls: “He ensnared people’s minds with his speech and misled them to rebel against the Omnipresent.”

Why was God so concerned about the people building this tower? The Targum Pseudo-Jonathan on Genesis 11:4 preserves the tradition that they put an idol on top of the tower, the image of a man with sword in hand thrusting toward heaven: 

And they said, Come, we will build us a city and a tower, and the head of it shall come to the summit of the heavens; and we will make us (an image for) worship on the top of it, and put a sword in his hand to act against the array of war, before that we be scattered on the face of the earth.

Other traditions say that this was an image of Nimrod himself, and that he set himself up as a god to be worshiped. 

Was it because they wanted to reach heaven? We know that would have been impossible. Or did God see something that seemed too familiar? The people said, “Come, let us build for ourselves a city, and a tower whose top will reach into heaven, and let us make for ourselves a name, otherwise we will be scattered abroad over the face of the whole earth.” 

First, the people wanted to make a name for themselves. What’s in a name? Remember Adam named all the animals and that gave him control and dominance over them. The builders of the tower wanted to make a name for themselves and not God. There was no glory in it for God. This is what Satan’s intentions were, to make a name for himself. This is the continuation of what Satan had begun in his revolt against God. The flood may have destroyed the people and the world but not him, for he too wanted to go up to heaven and sit upon God’s throne. This is what he did in the Garden when he got Eve to question God’s commands. He said, “If you eat from this tree God knows that you will become like Him.” This is Humanism, the religion of Satan. 

Humanism says we can all be gods. You see that the people did not want to be scattered, but this is just what God did to them. He scattered them and confused them by changing everyone’s language. God saw what man could do if they were united. 

Today we see this very thing happening again. We are trying to bring man together and unite us. This is globalism, the one world order. If God divided us then we have no right to unite us. Globalism is what the Antichrist will use to bring about his reign. God saw this at the Tower of Babel. 

The rabbis connected this incident at the tower of Babel with the final battle of Gog and Magog, when mankind will once again rebel against God. 

R. Aibu stated in the name of (R. Eliezer the son of) R. Yosé the Galilean: Mankind rebelled against the Holy One, blessed be He, three times. The first rebellion was this one [the Tower of Babel]; the second occurred in the days of Joshua, as it is said: They gathered themselves together, to fight with Joshua and with Israel, with one accord (Joshua 9:2); and the third will transpire in the days of Gog and Magog, as it is said: The kings of the earth stand up and the rulers take counsel together against the Lord (Psalm 2:2) (Midrash Tanchuma, Noach 18:8).

We have seen from the beginning how God created the world. We have seen how God recreated the world at the time of the flood. All of history has come and gone to this point, and we have seen the Creator of this world interact with His creation and how He made right the wrong of the Garden of Eden through the Messiah Yeshua. We see now in the book of Acts a window through which God reveals life at the time of the Tower of Babel:

When the day of Pentecost had come, they were all together in one place. And suddenly there came from heaven a noise like a violent rushing wind, and it filled the whole house where they were sitting. And there appeared to them tongues as of fire distributing themselves, and they rested on each one of them. And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit was giving them utterance. Now there were Jews living in Jerusalem, devout men from every nation under heaven. And when this sound occurred, the crowd came together, and were bewildered because each one of them was hearing them speak in his own language. They were amazed and astonished, saying, “Why, are not all these who are speaking Galileans? And how is it that we each hear them in our own language to which we were born? Parthians and Medes and Elamites, and residents of Mesopotamia, Judea and Cappadocia, Pontus and Asia, Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the districts of Libya around Cyrene, and visitors from Rome, both Jews and proselytes, Cretans and Arabs—we hear them in our own tongues speaking of the mighty deeds of God.” And they all continued in amazement and great perplexity, saying to one another, “What does this mean?” (Acts 2:1-12)

On the day of Pentecost God showed us that one day we will all understand each other because we will once again have one language and we will be united. But we also learn that it will be God who will bring this about and not man. The rabbis believed that originally, everyone spoke Hebrew, and that this only changed at the Tower of Babel. The Midrash Tanchuma says, “Originally, they had spoken to each other in Hebrew, the language with which the world was created” (Midrash Tanchuma, Noach 19:1). Because of this, they believe that in the Messianic Age everyone will once again speak Hebrew: 

The Holy One, blessed be He, said: In this world My creatures opposed Me, and therefore they were divided into seventy languages because of the evil inclination, but in the world-to-come they will all be of one accord, calling upon My name and serving Me, as it is said: For then will I turn to the peoples one pure language that they may call upon the name of the Lord, to serve Him with one consent (Zephaniah 3:9). (Midrash Tanchuma, Noach 19:2).

So let us now take a closer look into the religion of Satan called Humanism. At the Tower of Babel the people wanted a name for themselves. They did not build to bring honor to God, but to themselves. If we are not living for God then we are living for ourselves, and the worship of ourselves is the worship of the Evil One. When Yeshua was tested in the wilderness, what did He say to him? As we see in Matthew 4:8-10

Again, the devil took Him to a very high mountain and showed Him all the kingdoms of the world and their splendor. “All this I will give You,” he said, “if You will bow down and worship me.” Yeshua said to him, “Away from Me, Satan! For it is written: ‘Worship the Lord your God, and serve Him only.’”

The Father of Lies has been telling a lie from the beginning—that we can be gods. We hear it today: “You deserve a break today,” “You owe it to yourself,” “You earned it,” “If it feels good do it,” “Experience all that life has to offer.” In Genesis we see that the lie he spoke to Eve was that it is okay to question the Word of God. Man cannot trust God because God lies. Satan lied when he said, “We can be like God,” “We all can be gods,” “If God cannot be trusted then He is not supreme and therefore there are no absolutes, no morals, no truth, and so this now allows us to rebel against God, because God was and is the liar.” We are now free from all restraints. 

Humanism’s emphasis is on secular concerns: “I am the center of the universe.” We have replaced the Word of God with science, philosophy, and man’s reason. We seek for man’s enlightenment and knowledge. 

Paul tells us in 2 Timothy 3:1-4

But mark this: There will be terrible times in the last days. People will be lovers of themselves, lovers of money, boastful, proud, abusive, disobedient to their parents, ungrateful, unholy, without love, unforgiving, slanderous, without self-control, brutal, not lovers of the good, treacherous, rash, conceited, lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God.

Paul also tells us in Romans 1:18-25

For [God does not overlook sin and] the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men who in their wickedness suppress and stifle the truth, because that which is known about God is evident within them [in their inner consciousness], for God made it evident to them. For ever since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through His workmanship [all His creation, the wonderful things that He has made], so that they [who fail to believe and trust in Him] are without excuse and without defense. For even though they knew God [as the Creator], they did not honor Him as God or give thanks [for His wondrous creation]. On the contrary, they became worthless in their thinking [godless, with pointless reasonings, and silly speculations], and their foolish heart was darkened. Claiming to be wise, they became fools, and exchanged the glory and majesty and excellence of the immortal God for an image [worthless idols] in the shape of mortal man and birds and four-footed animals and reptiles. Therefore God gave them over in the lusts of their own hearts to [sexual] impurity, so that their bodies would be dishonored among them [abandoning them to the degrading power of sin], because [by choice] they exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever! Amen.

And again in 1 Corinthians 1:20-21

Where is the wise man? Where is the scribe? Where is the debater of this age? Has not God made foolish the wisdom of the world? For since in the wisdom of God the world through its wisdom did not come to know God, God was well-pleased through the foolishness of the message preached to save those who believe.

So what do Humanists believe? Let’s take a look at their own manifesto.

In 1933, the Humanist Manifesto I was published. Here are 15 key points.

  1. It begins with there is no Creator.
  2. Man is an animal and all life is a product of evolution.
  3. Man has no immortal soul so there is no future judgement.
  4. Religion is a by-product of evolution and social development. Secular Humanism must replace outdated concepts as in Christianity and Judaism.
  5. There are no absolute values
  6. Humanism rejects all religious morals and concepts of “right and wrong.”
  7. Humanism is a religion.
  8. Humanists are social engineers out to remake the world in their image.
  9. Humanists want to create a heaven on earth through collectivistic (communist) socialistic utopia.
  10. In that socialistic amoral utopia there is no room for traditional religion of any kind.
  11. There is no faith or hope beyond this present world.
  12. There can be no restraints put on humans in their pursuit for sensual pleasure (hedonism).
  13. There is an emphasis on living for the moment.
  14. Traditional religion and religious expression must give way to a global Humanistic one world religion.
  15. Humanists have a collectivistic/Marxist view of economics.

In 1973, the Humanist Manifesto II was published with an updated blueprint for a new One World Order. Even though the manifesto was updated, not much has changed because Humanism was founded upon principles of self-empowerment, critical thinking, reason, curiosity, and doing good for the sake of the other. Humanism requires no authoritarian figures to control one’s thinking or motivate one’s actions because what is right for me may not be right for you.

  1. Global Humanism

Today in the 21st century we now have a global Secular Humanist movement. Social media and the digital age has caused the Humanist movement to explode. Its creation resembles a semi-constitution, which enables those who participate to actively engage within the community. The understanding is that this religion (Secular Humanism) has been a powerful force in the world because it gives people a sense of contributing to something larger than themselves. However, the difference here is the shift from supporting a deity to supporting ourselves, based on our own common humanity. The model is as follows:

  1. God does not exist: human beings do.
  2. If we contribute to what actually exists, all of us will benefit.
  3. Helping others will allow others to help each other.
  4. Humanism is a self-preservation system as well as a system that moves us forward.

Today all restraints are off, and the Humanist feels empowered and free. The global effort has begun to control governments and laws and even has affected modern day religious thought. The years of pushing their ideas in the world of academia and the media with Hollywood at its side, about this new age of “the Human Right” and “Social Justice” and basically this: “All for one and one for all.” Socialism and even Communism that they have been pushing for decades has begun to pay off. 

Even if we realize it or not, Secular Humanism, or should I say the religion of Babylon, has played a part throughout history. We have seen the breakdown of every area of our lives. History has been repeating itself over and over again, but with greater influence as the population has exploded over the centuries. We see Paul’s words to Timothy (2 Timothy 3:1-4) about how the people will be in the end times is totally correct. Our walk with God has become cold. We see, in Revelation 2-3, Yeshua telling the 7 churches that they need to come back to their first love and do the things they did at first. He tells them they are holding on to the teachings of Baal and the Nicolatians (Humanism) and committing acts of immorality. They were tolerating the false prophetess Jezebel (Humanist teachings) who was leading them astray to commit immorality. Yeshua calls it Satanic teaching. He tells them that they are soiling their garments. They thought they were alive, but actually they were dead. Yeshua calls it all a lie. He tells them that they are lukewarm and that He will spit them out. They think that they are rich, but they are poor, miserable, and naked. He tells them that they need to repent. This was for the church then, and this is for the church now. So let us say, this is not something that we can take lightly. The Bible tells us to beware in 1 Corinthians 10:1-12

For I do not want you to be unaware, brethren, that our fathers were all under the cloud and all passed through the sea; and all were baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea; and all ate the same spiritual food; and all drank the same spiritual drink, for they were drinking from a spiritual rock which followed them; and the rock was Messiah. Nevertheless, with most of them God was not well-pleased; for they were laid low in the wilderness. Now these things happened as examples for us, so that we would not crave evil things as they also craved. Do not be idolaters, as some of them were; as it is written, “The people sat down to eat and drink, and stood up to play.” Nor let us act immorally, as some of them did, and twenty-three thousand fell in one day. Nor let us try the Lord, as some of them did, and were destroyed by the serpents. Nor grumble, as some of them did, and were destroyed by the destroyer. Now these things happened to them as an example, and they were written for our instruction, upon whom the ends of the ages have come. Therefore let him who thinks he stands take heed that he does not fall.

We see that even with all the miracles and the mighty hand of God that moved in the lives of the Israelites, they still fell. Just like Adam and Eve who walked with God still fell, we can not take for granted such a great salvation. Satan’s counterfeit religion has come through the ages, and he has taken down so many before us because he is so crafty. Today, the world has a lot to offer, especially here in America. The church is not even close to what it was in the previous centuries. We have fallen into Humanism if we realize it or not. So many people believe that they no longer need the Ten Commandments. So many people are into Social Justice that they believe that they, and not God, need to bring about an equal world. Today the church is seeker-friendly and so politically correct that sin and repentance are no longer preached. We believe that we can not fall from grace, even though we see in the parables of Yeshua that that is not correct. The door will be closed to many who think they are standing but are not. Yeshua tells us in Matthew 7:21-23

Not everyone who says to Me, “Lord, Lord,” will enter the Kingdom of Heaven, but the one who does the will of My Father who is in heaven. On that day, many will say to Me, “Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in Your name, and cast out demons in Your name, and do many mighty works in Your name?” And then will I declare to them, “I never knew you; depart from Me, you workers of lawlessness.”

We may go to church or to Bible studies, but do we seek God out for His will in our lives? Do we pray when we need to make a decision to find out what God thinks about it? I have known people who prayed for God to open a door and when several doors opened they believed that it was God opening every door, and so they chose whichever job had the better pay, never considering to ask God His will. This is all Humanism. We must learn to seek God out and to pray things through, and that takes time and even perseverance, waiting upon God and trusting Him. But if we do not, then we rely on our own intuition or our own resources, and that is all Humanism. Whenever we leave God out of our lives or He is not the center of our lives then it is Humanism. When we live outside of His Word, it is Humanism. When we start to think that something is owed to us, that is Humanism. We cannot earn anything, because God is the one who gives us everything, and when we start to think differently, that is Humanism. Humanism is now in the church. Today there are many preachers who do not even believe what they preach. They believe in same-sex marriage, they believe in abortion, they do not believe in a final judgment. They believe that God is only love and that He will not judge us or condemn us. Every denomination has made concessions and compromises to their creed of faith. Yes, every denomination. The heads of faith from all over the world have signed agreements, and heads of universities also. We must beware lest we fall. We do not examine ourselves to see if we are still in the faith as 2 Corinthians 13:5 tells us, “Test yourselves to see if you are in the faith; examine yourselves! Or do you not recognize this about yourselves, that Messiah Yeshua is in you—unless indeed you fail the test?”

So now that we have seen how Humanism (Mystery Babylon) and its religion began, let’s go to the Book of Revelation and see just how this false religion will coexist with the Antichrist.

Revelation 13:1-10 tells us this about him: 

And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy. And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion: and the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority. And I saw one of his heads as it were wounded to death; and his deadly wound was healed: and all the world wondered after the beast. And they worshiped the dragon which gave power unto the beast: and they worshiped the beast, saying, “Who is like unto the beast? Who is able to make war with him?” And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue forty and two months. And he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme His name, and His tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven. And it was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them: and power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations. And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the Book of Life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world. If any man have an ear, let him hear. He that leadeth into captivity shall go into captivity: he that kills with the sword must be killed with the sword. Here is the patience and the faith of the saints.

This beast is Babylon, a powerful one world government system by which its people are ruled by Humanism. Their king, who is worshiped and considered as God, is the Antichrist, Satan himself.

Revelation 17:1-2 tells us, 

One of the seven angels who had the seven bowls came and said to me, “Come, I will show you the punishment of the great prostitute, who sits by many waters. With her the kings of the earth committed adultery, and the inhabitants of the earth were intoxicated with the wine of her adulteries.”

Revelation 17:3-7 goes on to say, 

Then the angel carried me away in the Spirit into a wilderness. There I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet beast that was covered with blasphemous names and had seven heads and ten horns. The woman was dressed in purple and scarlet, and was glittering with gold, precious stones and pearls. She held a golden cup in her hand, filled with abominable things and the filth of her adulteries. The name written on her forehead was a mystery: Babylon the Great, the mother of prostitutes and of the abominations of the earth. I saw that the woman was drunk with the blood of God’s holy people, the blood of those who bore testimony to Yeshua. When I saw her, I was greatly astonished. Then the angel said to me: “Why are you astonished? I will explain to you the mystery of the woman and of the beast she rides, which has the seven heads and ten horns.”

Who is Babylon that the kings and the inhabitants of the earth will have this adulterated affair with her? And second, what are these waters by which she sits? God’s Word always interprets the Scriptures, and so we should not go outside of that interpretation. The Scripture gives us a riddle.

Revelation 17:8-18 explains, 

“The beast, which you saw, once was, now is not, and yet will come up out of the Abyss and go to its destruction. The inhabitants of the earth whose names have not been written in the Book of Life from the creation of the world will be astonished when they see the beast, because it once was, now is not, and yet will come. This calls for a mind with wisdom. The seven heads are seven hills on which the woman sits. They are also seven kings. Five have fallen, one is, the other has not yet come; but when he does come, he must remain for only a little while. The beast who once was, and now is not, is an eighth king. He belongs to the seven and is going to his destruction. The ten horns you saw are ten kings who have not yet received a kingdom, but who for one hour will receive authority as kings along with the beast. They have one purpose and will give their power and authority to the beast. They will wage war against the Lamb, but the Lamb will triumph over them because He is Lord of lords and King of kings—and with Him will be His called, chosen and faithful followers.” Then the angel said to me, “The waters you saw, where the prostitute sits, are peoples, multitudes, nations and languages. The beast and the ten horns you saw will hate the prostitute. They will bring her to ruin and leave her naked; they will eat her flesh and burn her with fire. For God has put it into their hearts to accomplish His purpose by agreeing to hand over to the beast their royal authority, until God’s words are fulfilled. The woman you saw is the great city that rules over the kings of the earth.”

Many people over the years have thought that the ten horns were ten nations and those ten nations made up the return of the Roman Empire. It is not so important to understand or to know who these ten kings are, or where these seven hills are, or who the Antichrist is. These things will be revealed in due time. But what is important is the call to come out from Babylon, because this one-world government along with its Humanistic false religion will be judged with everyone who has fallen into her trap.

Revelation 18:1-8 says, 

After this I saw another angel coming down from heaven. He had great authority, and the earth was illuminated by his splendor. With a mighty voice he shouted: “Fallen! Fallen is Babylon the Great! She has become a dwelling for demons and a haunt for every impure spirit, a haunt for every unclean bird, a haunt for every unclean and detestable animal. For all the nations have drunk the maddening wine of her adulteries. The kings of the earth committed adultery with her, and the merchants of the earth grew rich from her excessive luxuries.” Then I heard another voice from heaven say: “Come out of her, my people, so that you will not share in her sins, so that you will not receive any of her plagues; for her sins are piled up to heaven, and God has remembered her crimes. Give back to her as she has given, pay her back double for what she has done. Pour her a double portion from her own cup. Give her as much torment and grief as the glory and luxury she gave herself. In her heart she boasts, ‘I sit enthroned as queen. I am not a widow; I will never mourn.’ Therefore in one day her plagues will overtake her: death, mourning and famine. She will be consumed by fire, for mighty is the Lord God who judges her.”

Yeshua will come and He will conquer as Revelation 19:11-21 tells us, 

And I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse, and He who sat on it is called Faithful and True, and in righteousness He judges and wages war. His eyes are a flame of fire, and on His head are many diadems; and He has a name written on Him which no one knows except Himself. He is clothed with a robe dipped in blood, and His name is called The Word of God. And the armies which are in heaven, clothed in fine linen, white and clean, were following Him on white horses. From His mouth comes a sharp sword, so that with it He may strike down the nations, and He will rule them with a rod of iron; and He treads the wine press of the fierce wrath of God, the Almighty. And on His robe and on His thigh He has a name written, “KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.” Then I saw an angel standing in the sun, and he cried out with a loud voice, saying to all the birds which fly in midheaven, “Come, assemble for the great supper of God, so that you may eat the flesh of kings and the flesh of commanders and the flesh of mighty men and the flesh of horses and of those who sit on them and the flesh of all men, both free men and slaves, and small and great.” And I saw the beast and the kings of the earth and their armies assembled to make war against Him who sat on the horse and against His army. And the beast was seized, and with him the false prophet who performed the signs in his presence, by which he deceived those who had received the mark of the beast and those who worshiped his image; these two were thrown alive into the lake of fire which burns with brimstone. And the rest were killed with the sword which came from the mouth of Him who sat on the horse, and all the birds were filled with their flesh.

Revelation 20:11-15 goes on to tell us, 

And I saw a great white throne, and Him that sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away; and there was found no place for them. And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is the Book of Life: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works. And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works. And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death. And whosoever was not found written in the Book of Life was cast into the lake of fire.

Isaiah writes in Isaiah 66:22-24

“For just as the new heavens and the new earth which I make will endure before Me,” declares the Lord, “So your offspring and your name will endure. And it shall be from new moon to new moon and from sabbath to sabbath, all mankind will come to bow down before Me,” says the Lord. “Then they will go forth and look on the corpses of the men who have transgressed against Me. For their worm will not die and their fire will not be quenched; and they will be an abhorrence to all mankind.”

Yeshua tells us this also in Mark 9:42-48

Whoever causes one of these little ones who believe to stumble, it would be better for him if, with a heavy millstone hung around his neck, he had been cast into the sea. If your hand causes you to stumble, cut it off; it is better for you to enter life crippled, than, having your two hands, to go into hell, into the unquenchable fire, where their worm does not die, and the fire is not quenched. If your foot causes you to stumble, cut it off; it is better for you to enter life lame, than, having your two feet, to be cast into hell, where their worm does not die, and the fire is not quenched. If your eye causes you to stumble, throw it out; it is better for you to enter the kingdom of God with one eye, than, having two eyes, to be cast into hell, where their worm does not die, and the fire is not quenched.

Revelation 14:9-12 says this,

Then another angel, a third one, followed them, saying with a loud voice, “If anyone worships the beast and his image, and receives a mark on his forehead or on his hand, he also will drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is mixed in full strength in the cup of His anger; and he will be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb. And the smoke of their torment goes up forever and ever; they have no rest day and night, those who worship the beast and his image, and whoever receives the mark of his name.” Here is the perseverance of the saints who keep the commandments of God and their faith in Yeshua.

It appears that we will see those who are in hell for eternity as a witness, for their fire will burn forever. 


We have seen from the beginning the many sides of God and the many attributes of God and the different names of God, but this is only a small part of the picture. Every day we experience God, even if it is in a sunrise or a flock of birds. God’s hand is everywhere. Romans 1:20 tells us, “For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made, so that they are without excuse.” 

One day the Judge will come to judge, and God who in peace laid down His bow will destroy all the earth as 2 Peter 3:3-7 tells us, 

Know this first of all, that in the last days mockers will come with their mocking, following after their own lusts, and saying, “Where is the promise of His coming? For ever since the fathers fell asleep, all continues just as it was from the beginning of creation.” For when they maintain this, it escapes their notice that by the word of God the heavens existed long ago and the earth was formed out of water and by water, through which the world at that time was destroyed, being flooded with water. But by His word the present heavens and earth are being reserved for fire, kept for the day of judgment and destruction of ungodly men.

Yes, this present age will come to an end and then we will enter into “the age to come,” the rule and reign of the Messiah; the restored Eden will also be fulfilled. And then there will be the “here after”, which is Eternal life. We see that God will once again, for the last time, not recreate His creation like in the day of the flood, but totally create a new heaven and earth. Revelation 21 tells us this, 

Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth; for the first heaven and the first earth passed away, and there is no longer any sea. And I saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, made ready as a bride adorned for her husband. And I heard a loud voice from the throne, saying, “Behold, the tabernacle of God is among men, and He will dwell among them, and they shall be His people, and God Himself will be among them, and He will wipe away every tear from their eyes; and there will no longer be any death; there will no longer be any mourning, or crying, or pain; the first things have passed away.” And He who sits on the throne said, “Behold, I am making all things new.” And He said, “Write, for these words are faithful and true.” Then He said to me, “It is done. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end. I will give to the one who thirsts from the spring of the water of life without cost. He who overcomes will inherit these things, and I will be his God and he will be My son. But for the cowardly and unbelieving and abominable and murderers and immoral persons and sorcerers and idolaters and all liars, their part will be in the lake that burns with fire and brimstone, which is the second death.” Then one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls full of the seven last plagues came and spoke with me, saying, “Come here, I will show you the bride, the wife of the Lamb.” And he carried me away in the Spirit to a great and high mountain, and showed me the holy city, Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, having the glory of God. Her brilliance was like a very costly stone, as a stone of crystal-clear jasper. It had a great and high wall, with twelve gates, and at the gates twelve angels; and names were written on them, which are the names of the twelve tribes of the sons of Israel. There were three gates on the east and three gates on the north and three gates on the south and three gates on the west. And the wall of the city had twelve foundation stones, and on them were the twelve names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb. The one who spoke with me had a gold measuring rod to measure the city, and its gates and its wall. The city is laid out as a square, and its length is as great as the width; and he measured the city with the rod, fifteen hundred miles; its length and width and height are equal. And he measured its wall, seventy-two yards, according to human measurements, which are also angelic measurements. The material of the wall was jasper; and the city was pure gold, like clear glass. The foundation stones of the city wall were adorned with every kind of precious stone. The first foundation stone was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, chalcedony; the fourth, emerald; the fifth, sardonyx; the sixth, sardius; the seventh, chrysolite; the eighth, beryl; the ninth, topaz; the tenth, chrysoprase; the eleventh, jacinth; the twelfth, amethyst. And the twelve gates were twelve pearls; each one of the gates was a single pearl. And the street of the city was pure gold, like transparent glass. I saw no temple in it, for the Lord God the Almighty and the Lamb are its temple. And the city has no need of the sun or of the moon to shine on it, for the glory of God has illumined it, and its lamp is the Lamb. The nations will walk by its light, and the kings of the earth will bring their glory into it. In the daytime (for there will be no night there) its gates will never be closed; and they will bring the glory and the honor of the nations into it; and nothing unclean, and no one who practices abomination and lying, shall ever come into it, but only those whose names are written in the Lamb’s book of life.

Revelation 22:1-5 continues with this, 

Then he showed me a river of the water of life, clear as crystal, coming from the throne of God and of the Lamb, in the middle of its street. On either side of the river was the Tree of Life, bearing twelve kinds of fruit, yielding its fruit every month; and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations. There will no longer be any curse; and the throne of God and of the Lamb will be in it, and His bond-servants will serve Him; they will see His face, and His name will be on their foreheads. And there will no longer be any night; and they will not have need of the light of a lamp nor the light of the sun, because the Lord God will illumine them; and they will reign forever and ever.

God’s final creation will not have the sun or the stars, for there will be no night, only day, and there will be no summer or winter. There will be no time at all. There will be no universe, and once again there will be no atmosphere to cause rain or cold or heat. In fact, when you see the New Jerusalem like a square, you have to ask yourself if the world will no longer be round, for it will no longer be rotating around the sun. Maybe God will create it flat. We also see that the Feast of Tabernacles will be fulfilled, for God will dwell with man forever. For all eternity, we will drink from the River of Life and eat from the Tree of Life. The Alpha and the Omega will have fulfilled all that was written from the beginning, and He will be our source for all eternity. 

We are the ones who are being built up today, as 1 Peter 2:4-10 tells us, 

And coming to Him as to a living stone which has been rejected by men, but is choice and precious in the sight of God, you also, as living stones, are being built up as a spiritual house for a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Messiah Yeshua. For this is contained in Scripture: “Behold, I lay in Zion a choice stone, a precious corner stone, and he who believes in Him will not be disappointed.” This precious value, then, is for you who believe; but for those who disbelieve, “The stone which the builders rejected, This became the very corner stone,” and, “A stone of stumbling and a rock of offense”; for they stumble because they are disobedient to the word, and to this doom they were also appointed. But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for God’s own possession, so that you may proclaim the excellencies of Him who has called you out of darkness into His marvelous light; for you once were not a people, but now you are the people of God; you had not received mercy, but now you have received mercy.

And again in Ephesians 2:19-22

So then you are no longer strangers and aliens, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and are of God’s household, having been built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Messiah Yeshua Himself being the corner stone, in whom the whole building, being fitted together, is growing into a holy temple in the Lord, in whom you also are being built together into a dwelling of God in the Spirit.

We are the New Jerusalem, the fellow citizens in the household of God. 

John 14:1-3 tells us this: 

Do not let your heart be troubled; believe in God, believe also in Me. In My Father’s house are many dwelling places; if it were not so, I would have told you; for I go to prepare a place for you. If I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and receive you to Myself, that where I am, there you may be also.

Before the foundation of the world, this was God’s plan: that we would be a priestly people, a holy people. His desire to create all things was to bring us to this day, for His desire was to dwell with man, like in the original Garden of Eden where man was in His glory. Our new eternal bodies will live on for eternity as 1 Corinthians 15:40-49 tells us, 

There are also heavenly bodies and earthly bodies, but the glory of the heavenly is one, and the glory of the earthly is another. There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars; for star differs from star in glory. So also is the resurrection of the dead. It is sown a perishable body, it is raised an imperishable body; it is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory; it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power; it is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. If there is a natural body, there is also a spiritual body. So also it is written, “The first man, Adam, became a living soul.” The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. However, the spiritual is not first, but the natural; then the spiritual. The first man is from the earth, earthy; the second man is from heaven. As is the earthy, so also are those who are earthy; and as is the heavenly, so also are those who are heavenly. Just as we have borne the image of the earthy, we will also bear the image of the heavenly.

And it continues in verses 53-57

For this perishable must put on the imperishable, and this mortal must put on immortality. But when this perishable will have put on the imperishable, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then will come about the saying that is written, “Death is swallowed up in victory. O death, where is your victory? O death, where is your sting?” The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law; but thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Messiah Yeshua.

We started in the beginning, and there is no better way to end this study then to end it with the last words of the Book. 

“Behold, I am coming quickly, and My reward is with Me, to render to every man according to what he has done. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end.” Blessed are those who wash their robes, so that they may have the right to the Tree of Life, and may enter by the gates into the city. Outside are the dogs and the sorcerers and the immoral persons and the murderers and the idolaters, and everyone who loves and practices lying. “I, Yeshua have sent My angel to testify to you these things for the churches. I am the root and the descendant of David, the bright morning star.” The Spirit and the bride say, “Come.” And let the one who hears say, “Come.” And let the one who is thirsty come; let the one who wishes take the water of life without cost. I testify to everyone who hears the words of the prophecy of this book: if anyone adds to them, God will add to him the plagues which are written in this book; and if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God will take away his part from the Tree of Life and from the holy city, which are written in this book. He who testifies to these things says, “Yes, I am coming quickly.” Amen. Come, Lord Yeshua. The grace of the Lord Yeshua be with all. Amen. (Revelation 22:12-21)


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *